6.1 The diverse geography of the Eastern Hemisphere has influenced human culture and settlement patterns in distinct ways. Human communities in the Eastern Hemisphere have adapted to or modified the physical environment.
6.1a Maps can be used to represent varied climate zones, landforms, bodies of water, and resources of the Eastern Hemisphere.
6.1b The Eastern Hemisphere can be divided into regions. Regions are areas that share common identifiable characteristics, such as physical, political, economic, or cultural features. Regions within the Eastern Hemisphere include:
6.1c The physical environment influences human population distribution, land use, economic activities, and political connections.
Students will use physical, climate, and vegetation maps in combination with population density, land use, and resource distribution maps in order to discern patterns in human settlement, economic activity, and the relationship to scarcity of resources in the present-day Eastern Hemisphere.
To understand scale, students will work with maps at a variety of scales so they can compare patterns in population density and land use, economic activity, and political connections across the present-day Eastern Hemisphere, within a region of the Eastern Hemisphere, and in a specific country. In doing so, students will examine maps of the hemisphere, three regions within the present-day Eastern Hemisphere, and one specific country within each region.
6.1d Issues and problems experienced in the regions of the Eastern Hemisphere have roots in the past.
Students will examine current political and environmental issues in a region or country of the Eastern Hemisphere being studied.
6.2 The first humans modified their physical environment as well as adapted to their environment.
6.2a Human populations that settled along rivers, in rainforests, along coastlines, in deserts, and in mountains made use of the resources and the environment around them in developing distinct ways of life.
6.2b Early peoples in the Eastern Hemisphere are often studied by analyzing artifacts and archaeological features. Archaeologists engage in digs and study artifacts and features in a particular location to gather evidence about a group of people and how they lived at a particular time.
6.2d Historians use archaeological and other types of evidence to investigate patterns in history and identify turning points. A turning point can be an event, era, and/or development in history that has brought about significant social, cultural, ecological, political, or economic change.
Students will determine if the Neolithic Revolution is a turning point in world history, using various forms of evidence.
6.3 Complex societies and civilizations developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. Although these complex societies and civilizations have certain defining characteristics in common, each is also known for unique cultural achievements and contributions. Early human communities in the Eastern Hemisphere adapted to and modified the physical environment.
6.3a Humans living together in settlements develop shared customs, beliefs, ideas, and languages that give identity to the group.
6.3b Complex societies and civilizations share the common characteristics of religion, job specialization, cities, government, language/record keeping system, technology, and social hierarchy. People in Mesopotamia, the Yellow River valley, the Indus River valley, and the Nile River valley developed complex societies and civilizations.
Students will explore at least two river valley societies and civilizations: one in the Middle East (Mesopotamia or Nile river valley), one in South Asia (Indus river valley), or one in East Asia (Yellow river valley) by examining archaeological and historical evidence to compare and contrast characteristics of these complex societies and civilizations.
6.3d Political and social hierarchies influenced the access that groups and individuals had to power, wealth, and jobs and influenced their roles within a society.
Students will compare and contrast the gender roles, access to wealth and power, and division of labor within the political and social structures of the selected river valley societies and civilizations.
6.4b Belief systems and religions are based on a set of mutually held values.
Students will study the belief systems of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism by looking at where the belief system originated, when it originated, founder(s) if any, and the major tenets, practices, and sacred writings or holy texts for each.
6.5 As complex societies and civilizations change over time, their political and economic structures evolve. A golden age may be indicated when there is an extended period of time that is peaceful, prosperous, and demonstrates great cultural achievements.
6.5a Geographic factors influence the development of classical civilizations and their political structures.
Students will locate the classical civilizations on a map and identify geographic factors that influenced the extent of their boundaries, locate their cities on a map, and identify their political structures.
Students will compare and contrast the similarities and differences of the Chinese (Qin, Han) and Greco-Roman classical civilizations by examining religion, job specialization, cities, government, language/record keeping system, technology, and social hierarchy.
Students will examine how cultural achievements of these civilizations have influenced contemporary societies.
6.6 The Mediterranean world was reshaped with the fall of the Roman Empire. Three distinct cultural regions developed: feudal Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the Islamic caliphates. These regions interacted with each other and clashed over control of holy lands.
6.6a Over expansion, corruption, invasions, civil wars, and discord led to the fall of Rome. Feudalism developed in Western Europe in reaction to a need for order and to meet basic needs.
Students will examine reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire and the development of feudalism in Western Europe, including efforts to restore the empire, the decentralization of political authority, and the role of the Christian Church in providing some measure of central authority.
6.6b The Byzantine Empire preserved elements of the Roman Empire, controlled lands within the Mediterranean basin, and began to develop Orthodox Christianity.
Students will examine how the Byzantine Empire preserved elements of the Roman Empire by blending Roman traditions with Greek culture, and developed a Christian faith, known as Orthodox Christianity, which united Church and state authority in the person of the emperor.
6.6c Islam spread within the Mediterranean region from southwest Asia to northern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
Students will examine the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, noting how the introduction of Islam changed the societies and cultures each conquered, blending with those societies and cultures and creating dynamic new Islamic societies and cultures.
6.6d Competition and rivalry over religious, economic, and political control over the holy lands led to conflict such as the Crusades.
Students will examine the three distinct cultural regions of the Mediterranean world in terms of their location, the extent of each region at the height of its power, and the political, economic, and social interactions between these regions.
6.7 Trade networks promoted the exchange and diffusion of language, belief systems, tools, intellectual ideas, inventions, and diseases.
6.7a The Silk Roads, the Indian Ocean, and the Trans-Saharan routes formed the major Afro-Eurasian trade networks connecting the East and the West. Ideas, people, technologies, products, and diseases moved along these routes.
Students will create maps that illustrate items exchanged and ideas spread along the Silk Roads, across the Indian Ocean, and on the Trans-Saharan trade routes.
Students will examine how the location of resources helped determine the location of trade routes and the economic impact of the exchange of resources.
Students will study interregional travelers such as Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta, Mansa Musa, and Zheng He and examine why they traveled, the places visited, what was learned, and what was exchanged as a result of their travel.
6.7b The Mongol conquests in Eurasia fostered connections between the East and the West, and the Mongols served as important agents of change and cultural diffusion.
Students will map the extent of the Mongol Empire at the height of its power.
Students will examine the spread of the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) as a result of interregional exchange and its effects on various regions within Afro-Eurasia, using a variety of sources, such as maps, poetry, and other primary source documents.
6.7c Complex societies and civilizations adapted and designed technologies for transportation that allowed them to cross challenging landscapes and move people and goods efficiently.
Students will examine how various technologies affected trade and exchanges. Some examples are types of ships, including junks and caravels; improvements to ships, such as sails and rudders; navigation tools, such as the compass and astrolabe; and gunpowder.