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Skills available for New York sixth-grade social studies standards

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6.1 The diverse geography of the Eastern Hemisphere has influenced human culture and settlement patterns in distinct ways. Human communities in the Eastern Hemisphere have adapted to or modified the physical environment.

6.2 The first humans modified their physical environment as well as adapted to their environment.

  • 6.2a Human populations that settled along rivers, in rainforests, along coastlines, in deserts, and in mountains made use of the resources and the environment around them in developing distinct ways of life.

  • 6.2b Early peoples in the Eastern Hemisphere are often studied by analyzing artifacts and archaeological features. Archaeologists engage in digs and study artifacts and features in a particular location to gather evidence about a group of people and how they lived at a particular time.

  • 6.2c The Neolithic Revolution was marked by technological advances in agriculture and domestication of animals that allowed people to form semi-sedentary and sedentary settlements.

    • Students will explore the early human migration patterns and settlements through the use of multiple maps and the examination of various forms of archaeological evidence.

    • Students will be introduced to pastoral nomadic peoples as a culture type that existed throughout history.

    • Students will compare the use of tools and animals, types of dwellings, art, and social organizations of early peoples, and distinguish between the Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Age.

  • 6.2d Historians use archaeological and other types of evidence to investigate patterns in history and identify turning points. A turning point can be an event, era, and/or development in history that has brought about significant social, cultural, ecological, political, or economic change.

    • Students will determine if the Neolithic Revolution is a turning point in world history, using various forms of evidence.

6.3 Complex societies and civilizations developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. Although these complex societies and civilizations have certain defining characteristics in common, each is also known for unique cultural achievements and contributions. Early human communities in the Eastern Hemisphere adapted to and modified the physical environment.

6.4 Major religions and belief systems developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. There were important similarities and differences between these belief systems.

6.5 As complex societies and civilizations change over time, their political and economic structures evolve. A golden age may be indicated when there is an extended period of time that is peaceful, prosperous, and demonstrates great cultural achievements.

6.6 The Mediterranean world was reshaped with the fall of the Roman Empire. Three distinct cultural regions developed: feudal Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the Islamic caliphates. These regions interacted with each other and clashed over control of holy lands.

  • 6.6a Over expansion, corruption, invasions, civil wars, and discord led to the fall of Rome. Feudalism developed in Western Europe in reaction to a need for order and to meet basic needs.

    • Students will examine reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire and the development of feudalism in Western Europe, including efforts to restore the empire, the decentralization of political authority, and the role of the Christian Church in providing some measure of central authority.

  • 6.6b The Byzantine Empire preserved elements of the Roman Empire, controlled lands within the Mediterranean basin, and began to develop Orthodox Christianity.

    • Students will examine how the Byzantine Empire preserved elements of the Roman Empire by blending Roman traditions with Greek culture, and developed a Christian faith, known as Orthodox Christianity, which united Church and state authority in the person of the emperor.

  • 6.6c Islam spread within the Mediterranean region from southwest Asia to northern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.

    • Students will examine the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, noting how the introduction of Islam changed the societies and cultures each conquered, blending with those societies and cultures and creating dynamic new Islamic societies and cultures.

  • 6.6d Competition and rivalry over religious, economic, and political control over the holy lands led to conflict such as the Crusades.

    • Students will examine the three distinct cultural regions of the Mediterranean world in terms of their location, the extent of each region at the height of its power, and the political, economic, and social interactions between these regions.

    • Students will examine the conflict of the Crusades from three different perspectives: feudal Europe, Byzantine, and Islamic.

6.7 Trade networks promoted the exchange and diffusion of language, belief systems, tools, intellectual ideas, inventions, and diseases.

  • 6.7a The Silk Roads, the Indian Ocean, and the Trans-Saharan routes formed the major Afro-Eurasian trade networks connecting the East and the West. Ideas, people, technologies, products, and diseases moved along these routes.

  • 6.7b The Mongol conquests in Eurasia fostered connections between the East and the West, and the Mongols served as important agents of change and cultural diffusion.

    • Students will map the extent of the Mongol Empire at the height of its power.

    • Students will examine the methods used by the Mongols to enable them to rule over a diverse population, noting how Mongol rule expanded trade.

    • Students will examine the spread of the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) as a result of interregional exchange and its effects on various regions within Afro-Eurasia, using a variety of sources, such as maps, poetry, and other primary source documents.

  • 6.7c Complex societies and civilizations adapted and designed technologies for transportation that allowed them to cross challenging landscapes and move people and goods efficiently.