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Skills available for New York eighth-grade social studies standards

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8.1 Regional tensions following the Civil War complicated efforts to heal the nation and to redefine the status of African Americans.

  • 8.1a Different approaches toward and policies for Reconstruction highlight the challenges faced in reunifying the nation.

    • Students will compare and contrast the differences between Reconstruction under Lincoln's plan, Johnson's plan, and congressional (Radical) Reconstruction.

  • 8.1b Freed African Americans created new lives for themselves in the absence of slavery. Constitutional amendments and federal legislation sought to expand the rights and protect the citizenship of African Americans.

    • Students will examine the Reconstruction amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th) in terms of the rights and protections provided to African Americans.

    • Students will examine the Freedmen's Bureau's purpose, successes, and the extent of its success.

    • Students will examine the effects of the sharecropping system on African Americans.

    • Students will examine the reasons for the migration of African Americans to the North.

    • Students will examine the rise of African Americans in government.

  • 8.1c Federal initiatives begun during Reconstruction were challenged on many levels, leading to negative impacts on the lives of African Americans.

8.2 Industrialization and immigration contributed to the urbanization of America. Problems resulting from these changes sparked the Progressive movement and increased calls for reform.

  • 8.2a Technological developments changed the modes of production, and access to natural resources facilitated increased industrialization. The demand for labor in urban industrial areas resulted in increased migration from rural areas and a rapid increase in immigration to the United States. New York City became the nation's largest city, and other cities in New York State also experienced growth at this time.

    • Students will identify groups of people who moved into urban areas, and examine where they came from and the reasons for their migration into the cities. Students will explore the immigrant experience at Ellis Island.

    • Students will compare and contrast immigrant experiences in locations such as ethnic neighborhoods in cities, rural settlements in the Midwest, Chinese communities in the Far West, and Mexican communities in the Southwest.

  • 8.2b Population density, diversity, technologies, and industry in urban areas shaped the social, cultural, and economic lives of people.

    • Students will examine the population growth of New York City and other New York cities and the technologies and industries which encouraged this growth.

    • Students will examine the living conditions in urban areas with a focus on increasing population density and the effects that this growth had on the social, cultural, and economic lives of people.

  • 8.2c Increased urbanization and industrialization contributed to increasing conflicts over immigration, influenced changes in labor conditions, and led to political corruption.

    • Students will examine nativism and anti-immigration policies including the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Gentlemen's Agreement, and immigration legislation of the 1920s.

    • Students will explore the growth and effects of child labor and sweatshops.

    • Students will explore the development of political machines, including Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall.

  • 8.2d In response to shifts in working conditions, laborers organized and employed a variety of strategies in an attempt to improve their conditions.

  • 8.2e Progressive reformers sought to address political and social issues at the local, state, and federal levels of government between 1890 and 1920. These efforts brought renewed attention to women's rights and the suffrage movement and spurred the creation of government reform policies.

    • Students will examine the Populist Party as a reform effort by farmers in response to industrialization.

    • Students will investigate reformers and muckrakers such as Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, W. E. B. du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Ida Tarbell, Eugene V. Debs, Jacob Riis, Booker T. Washington, and Upton Sinclair. Student investigations should include the key issues in the individual's work and the actions that individual took or recommended to address those issues.

    • Students will explore leaders and activities of the temperance and woman's suffrage movements.

    • Students will investigate the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and the legislative response.

    • Students will examine state and federal government responses to reform efforts, including the passage of the 17th amendment, child labor and minimum wage laws, antitrust legislation, and food and drug regulations.

8.3 Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, economic, political, and cultural factors contributed to a push for westward expansion and more aggressive United States foreign policy.

  • 8.3a Continued westward expansion contributed to increased conflicts with Native Americans.

    • Students will examine the impact of the transcontinental railroad on the movement toward westward expansion.

    • Students will examine examples of Native American resistance to the western encroachment, including the Sioux Wars and the flight and surrender of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce.

    • Students will examine United States and New York State policies toward Native Americans, such as the displacement of Native Americans from traditional lands, creation of reservations, efforts to assimilate Native Americans through the creation of boarding schools, the Dawes Act, and the Indian Reorganization Act and the Native Americans' various responses to these policies.

  • 8.3b The Spanish-American War contributed to the rise of the United States as an imperial power.

    • Students will examine examples of yellow journalism that contributed to United States entry into the Spanish-American War, including the portrayal of the sinking of the USS Maine.

    • Students will explain how the events and outcomes of the Spanish-American War contributed to the shift to imperialism in United States foreign policy.

  • 8.3c Interest in Pacific trade contributed to an increase in United States foreign interactions.

    • Students will assess the events surrounding the annexation of Hawaii.

    • Students will examine the purpose and effects of the Open Door Policy.

  • 8.3d The Roosevelt Corollary expanded the Monroe Doctrine and increased United States involvement in the affairs of Latin America. This led to resentment of the United States among many in Latin America.

    • Students will evaluate the United States actions taken under the Roosevelt Corollary and their effects on relationships between the United States and Latin American nations, including the building of the Panama Canal.

8.4 Various diplomatic, economic, and ideological factors contributed to the United States decision to enter World War I. Involvement in the war significantly altered the lives of Americans. Postwar America was characterized by economic prosperity, technological innovations, and changes in the workplace.

  • 8.4a European militarism, the alliance system, imperialism, and nationalism were all factors that contributed to the start of World War I.

  • 8.4b International, economic, and military developments swayed opinion in favor of the United States siding with the Allies and entering World War I. Domestic responses to World War I limited civil liberties within the United States.

    • Students will examine an overview of the causes of World War I, focusing on the factors leading to United States entry into the war.

    • Students will examine examples of war propaganda and its impact on support for United States involvement in the war.

    • Students will examine the restrictions placed on citizens after United States entry into the war, including the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918).

  • 8.4c New military technologies changed military strategy in World War I and resulted in an unprecedented number of casualties.

    • Students will examine the effects of the changes in military technologies used during World War I, including trench warfare, chemical weapons, machine guns, and aircraft.

  • 8.4d Following extensive political debate, the United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The United States then sought to return to prewar policies by focusing on domestic rather than international matters.

    • Students will examine Wilson's Fourteen Points and investigate reasons why the United States Senate refused to support the Treaty of Versailles, focusing on opposition to the League of Nations.

  • 8.4e After World War I, the United States entered a period of economic prosperity and cultural change. This period is known as the Roaring Twenties. During this time, new opportunities for women were gained, and African Americans engaged in various efforts to distinguish themselves and celebrate their culture.

    • Students will investigate the efforts of women suffragists and explain the historical significance of the 19th amendment.

    • Students will examine the reasons for and effects of prohibition on American society.

    • Students will examine examples of World War I and postwar race relations, such as the East St. Louis riots, the Silent March, and the Tulsa riots.

    • Students will explore the changes in American culture after World War I, including an examination of the Harlem Renaissance and other changes in New York City.

8.5 Economic and environmental disasters in the 1930s created hardships for many Americans. Amidst much debate about the appropriate role of government, President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped to create intensive government interventions in the United States economy and society.

  • 8.5a Risky investing, protectionism, and overproduction led to the collapse of the stock market, a wave of bank failures, and a long and severe downturn in the economy called the Great Depression.

    • Students will examine how the economic practices of the 1920s contributed to the coming of the Great Depression.

  • 8.5b The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl affected American businesses and families.

    • Students will examine the effects of the Great Depression on American families in terms of the loss of jobs, wealth, and homes, noting varying effects based on class, race, and gender. Students will explore the conditions in New York City and other communities within New York State during the Great Depression.

    • Students will explore the man-made and environmental conditions that led to the Dust Bowl, the economic as well as cultural consequences of the Dust Bowl, and federal government efforts to address the problem.

  • 8.5c President Roosevelt issued the New Deal in an attempt to revive the economy and help Americans deal with the hardships of the Great Depression. These New Deal reforms had a long-lasting effect on the role of government in American society and its economic life, but did not resolve all of the hardships Americans faced.

    • Students will identify key programs adopted under the New Deal, including the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the adoption of the Social Security Act.

8.6 The aggression of the Axis powers threatened United States security and led to its entry into World War II. The nature and consequences of warfare during World War II transformed the United States and the global community. The damage from total warfare and atrocities such as the Holocaust led to a call for international efforts to protect human rights and prevent future wars.

  • 8.6a Worldwide economic depression, militant nationalism, the rise of totalitarian rule, and the unsuccessful efforts of the League of Nations to preserve peace contributed to the outbreak of war in Europe and Asia.

    • Students will examine how the worldwide economic depression and militant nationalism resulted in the rise of totalitarian rule.

  • 8.6b From 1939 to 1941, the United States government tried to maintain neutrality while providing aid to Britain but was drawn into the war by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The United States fought a war on multiple fronts. At home, the economy was converted to war production, and essential resources were rationed to ensure adequate supplies for military use.

    • Students will examine American involvement in World War II, including the American strategy in the Pacific and the invasion of Normandy on D-Day.

    • Students will examine the role of the Tuskegee Airmen within the segregated military during World War II.

    • Students will investigate the effects of the war on the American economy and day-to-day life.

    • Students will examine the decision in Korematsu v. United States (1944) to intern Japanese Americans in light of perceived national security concerns versus constitutional rights.

    • Student will examine the role of New Yorkers in World War II, focusing on local institutions, such as the Fort Ontario Refugee Center or the Brooklyn Navy Yard.

  • 8.6c The nature and consequences of warfare during World War II transformed the United States and the global community. The damage from total warfare and human atrocities, including the Holocaust, led to a call for an international organization to prevent future wars and the protection of human rights.

    • Students will examine the role of air power by the allies, including the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    • Students will investigate the Holocaust and explain the historical significance of the Nuremberg trials.

    • Students will examine the structure and work of the United Nations.

8.7 The period after World War II has been characterized by an ideological and political struggle, first between the United States and communism during the Cold War, then between the United States and forces of instability in the Middle East. Increased economic interdependence and competition, as well as environmental concerns, are challenges faced by the United States.

  • 8.7a The Cold War was an ongoing struggle between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War shaped the reconstruction of national boundaries and political alliances across the globe.

    • Students will locate on a map the nations that were aligned with the United States, those aligned with the Soviet Union, and the non-aligned nations.

    • Students will examine the term nuclear superpower and the threat of nuclear weapons as a cause and as an effect of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

  • 8.7b The United States based its military and diplomatic policies from 1945 to 1990 on a policy of containment of communism.

    • Students will examine the policy of containment and its application in the postwar period, including the Marshall Plan, the Korean War, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Vietnam War.

  • 8.7c Following the end of the Cold War, the United States sought to define a new role in global affairs, but the legacies of Cold War actions continue to affect United States foreign policy today.

    • Students will examine the changing relationships between the United States and foreign countries such as

      • China beginning in 1950

      • Afghanistan beginning in the 1980s

      • Russia beginning in 1990

      • Middle East (Israel, Palestine, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq)

      • Countries in the Western Hemisphere, focusing on NAFTA, Cuba and Mexico

      • European Union countries

  • 8.7d Terrorist groups not representing any nation entered and reshaped global military and political alliances and conflicts. American foreign and domestic policies responded to terrorism in a variety of ways.

    • Students will examine the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, its effects on national security and the United States responses to it, including the USA Patriot Act, the formation of the Department of Homeland Security, the War on Terror, and military attacks on suspected terrorist locations.

  • 8.7e Increased globalization has led to increased economic interdependence and competition.

    • Students will examine the increased economic interdependence in terms of globalization and its impact on the United States and New York State economy, including the workforce.

    • Students will examine the role of multinational corporations and their influence on the world economy.

8.8 After World War II, the population of the United States rose sharply as a result of both natural increases and immigration. Population movements have resulted in changes to the American landscape and shifting political power. An aging population is affecting the economy and straining public resources.

  • 8.8a After World War II, the United States experienced various shifts in population and demographics that resulted in social, political, and economic consequences.

    • Students will explore the short-term and long-term effects of the baby boom generation on the economy, including increases in the construction of homes and schools and increased demands on both Social Security and health care.

    • Students will examine the effects of suburbanization, including urban decay, suburban growth, and diminished availability of farmland both nationally and within New York State.

    • Students will examine the population shift from the Midwest and northern industrial states to the Sun Belt, including its effect on political power.

  • 8.8b The postwar United States experienced increasing immigration, debates over immigration policy, and an increase in cultural diversity.

    • Students will examine migration and immigration trends in New York State and New York City such as the increase in Spanish-speaking, South Asian, East Asian, Middle Eastern, and African populations and the contributions of these groups.

    • Students will examine the effects of immigration legislation and policy, including recent debates over immigration policy.

  • 8.8c Pollution, population growth, the consumption of natural resources, clearing of land for human sustenance, and large-scale industrialization have put added stress on the global environment.

    • Students will explore the effects of pollution, industrialization, and population growth on the environment, including urban areas (Love Canal), plant and animal life (Adirondack Park) and energy sources (Three Mile Island).

8.9 The civil rights movement and the Great Society were attempts by people and the government to address major social, legal, economic, and environmental problems. Subsequent economic recession called for a new economic program.

  • 8.9a The civil rights movement began in the postwar era in response to long-standing inequalities in American society, and eventually brought about equality under the law but slower progress on economic improvements.

    • Students will compare and contrast the strategies used by civil rights activists, such as Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.

    • Students will explain the significance of key civil rights victories, including President Truman's desegregation of the military, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

    • Students will examine the extent to which the economic situation of African Americans improved as a result of the civil rights movement.

  • 8.9b The civil rights movement prompted renewed efforts for equality by women and other groups.

    • Students will examine struggles for equality and factors that enabled or limited success on behalf of women, farm workers, Native Americans, the disabled, and the LGBT community.

    • Students will examine judicial actions taken to protect individual rights, such as Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969).

  • 8.9c The Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson strengthened efforts aimed at reducing poverty and providing health care for the elderly, but the Vietnam War drained resources and divided society.

    • Students will explain the difference between Medicare and Medicaid.

    • Students will examine the connection between the Vietnam War, especially the draft, and the growth of a counterculture and peace movement.

  • 8.9d Economic recession during the 1970s and concerns about the growth and size of the federal government encouraged fiscal conservatives to push for changes in regulation and policy.

    • Students will examine President Ronald Reagan's and President George H. W. Bush's cuts to social programs and taxes in an attempt to stimulate the economy.

  • 8.9e Constitutional issues involving the violation of civil liberties and the role of the federal government are a source of debate in American society.

    • Students will examine state and federal responses to gun violence, cyber-bullying, and electronic surveillance.