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Skills available for New York eighth-grade social studies standards

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  • 8.1 Regional tensions following the Civil War complicated efforts to heal the nation and to redefine the status of African Americans.

    • 8.1a Different approaches toward and policies for Reconstruction highlight the challenges faced in reunifying the nation.

      • Students will compare and contrast the differences between Reconstruction under Lincoln's plan, Johnson's plan, and congressional (Radical) Reconstruction.

    • 8.1b Freed African Americans created new lives for themselves in the absence of slavery. Constitutional amendments and federal legislation sought to expand the rights and protect the citizenship of African Americans.

      • Students will examine the Reconstruction amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th) in terms of the rights and protections provided to African Americans.

      • Students will examine the Freedmen's Bureau's purpose, successes, and the extent of its success.

      • Students will examine the effects of the sharecropping system on African Americans.

      • Students will examine the reasons for the migration of African Americans to the North.

      • Students will examine the rise of African Americans in government.

    • 8.1c Federal initiatives begun during Reconstruction were challenged on many levels, leading to negative impacts on the lives of African Americans.

A Changing Society

  • 8.2 Industrialization and immigration contributed to the urbanization of America. Problems resulting from these changes sparked the Progressive movement and increased calls for reform.

    • 8.2a Technological developments changed the modes of production, and access to natural resources facilitated increased industrialization. The demand for labor in urban industrial areas resulted in increased migration from rural areas and a rapid increase in immigration to the United States. New York City became the nation's largest city, and other cities in New York State also experienced growth at this time.

      • Students will identify groups of people who moved into urban areas, and examine where they came from and the reasons for their migration into the cities. Students will explore the immigrant experience at Ellis Island.

      • Students will compare and contrast immigrant experiences in locations such as ethnic neighborhoods in cities, rural settlements in the Midwest, Chinese communities in the Far West, and Mexican communities in the Southwest.

    • 8.2b Population density, diversity, technologies, and industry in urban areas shaped the social, cultural, and economic lives of people.

      • Students will examine the population growth of New York City and other New York cities and the technologies and industries which encouraged this growth.

      • Students will examine the living conditions in urban areas with a focus on increasing population density and the effects that this growth had on the social, cultural, and economic lives of people.

    • 8.2c Increased urbanization and industrialization contributed to increasing conflicts over immigration, influenced changes in labor conditions, and led to political corruption.

      • Students will examine nativism and anti-immigration policies including the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Gentlemen's Agreement, and immigration legislation of the 1920s.

      • Students will explore the growth and effects of child labor and sweatshops.

      • Students will explore the development of political machines, including Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall.

    • 8.2d In response to shifts in working conditions, laborers organized and employed a variety of strategies in an attempt to improve their conditions.

    • 8.2e Progressive reformers sought to address political and social issues at the local, state, and federal levels of government between 1890 and 1920. These efforts brought renewed attention to women's rights and the suffrage movement and spurred the creation of government reform policies.

      • Students will examine the Populist Party as a reform effort by farmers in response to industrialization.

      • Students will investigate reformers and muckrakers such as Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, W. E. B. du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Ida Tarbell, Eugene V. Debs, Jacob Riis, Booker T. Washington, and Upton Sinclair. Student investigations should include the key issues in the individual's work and the actions that individual took or recommended to address those issues.

      • Students will explore leaders and activities of the temperance and woman's suffrage movements.

      • Students will investigate the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and the legislative response.

      • Students will examine state and federal government responses to reform efforts, including the passage of the 17th amendment, child labor and minimum wage laws, antitrust legislation, and food and drug regulations.

Expansion and Imperialism

  • 8.3 Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, economic, political, and cultural factors contributed to a push for westward expansion and more aggressive United States foreign policy.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.

World War I and the Roaring Twenties

  • 8.4 Various diplomatic, economic, and ideological factors contributed to the United States decision to enter World War I. Involvement in the war significantly altered the lives of Americans. Postwar America was characterized by economic prosperity, technological innovations, and changes in the workplace.

    • 8.4a European militarism, the alliance system, imperialism, and nationalism were all factors that contributed to the start of World War I.

    • 8.4b International, economic, and military developments swayed opinion in favor of the United States siding with the Allies and entering World War I. Domestic responses to World War I limited civil liberties within the United States.

      • Students will examine an overview of the causes of World War I, focusing on the factors leading to United States entry into the war.

      • Students will examine examples of war propaganda and its impact on support for United States involvement in the war.

      • Students will examine the restrictions placed on citizens after United States entry into the war, including the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918).

    • 8.4c New military technologies changed military strategy in World War I and resulted in an unprecedented number of casualties.

      • Students will examine the effects of the changes in military technologies used during World War I, including trench warfare, chemical weapons, machine guns, and aircraft.

    • 8.4d Following extensive political debate, the United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The United States then sought to return to prewar policies by focusing on domestic rather than international matters.

      • Students will examine Wilson's Fourteen Points and investigate reasons why the United States Senate refused to support the Treaty of Versailles, focusing on opposition to the League of Nations.

    • 8.4e After World War I, the United States entered a period of economic prosperity and cultural change. This period is known as the Roaring Twenties. During this time, new opportunities for women were gained, and African Americans engaged in various efforts to distinguish themselves and celebrate their culture.

      • Students will investigate the efforts of women suffragists and explain the historical significance of the 19th amendment.

      • Students will examine the reasons for and effects of prohibition on American society.

      • Students will examine examples of World War I and postwar race relations, such as the East St. Louis riots, the Silent March, and the Tulsa riots.

      • Students will explore the changes in American culture after World War I, including an examination of the Harlem Renaissance and other changes in New York City.

Great Depression

  • 8.5 Economic and environmental disasters in the 1930s created hardships for many Americans. Amidst much debate about the appropriate role of government, President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped to create intensive government interventions in the United States economy and society.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.

World War II

  • 8.6 The aggression of the Axis powers threatened United States security and led to its entry into World War II. The nature and consequences of warfare during World War II transformed the United States and the global community. The damage from total warfare and atrocities such as the Holocaust led to a call for international efforts to protect human rights and prevent future wars.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.

Foreign Policy

  • 8.7 The period after World War II has been characterized by an ideological and political struggle, first between the United States and communism during the Cold War, then between the United States and forces of instability in the Middle East. Increased economic interdependence and competition, as well as environmental concerns, are challenges faced by the United States.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.

Demographic Change

  • 8.8 After World War II, the population of the United States rose sharply as a result of both natural increases and immigration. Population movements have resulted in changes to the American landscape and shifting political power. An aging population is affecting the economy and straining public resources.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.

Domestic Politics and Reform

  • 8.9 The civil rights movement and the Great Society were attempts by people and the government to address major social, legal, economic, and environmental problems. Subsequent economic recession called for a new economic program.

    • Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.