1 Observing is the first action taken by the learner to acquire new information about an objects, organism, or event. Opportunities for observation are developed through the use of a variety of scientific tools. Measurement allows observations to be quantified. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.
1 Observe and measure objects, organisms, and/or events (e.g., mass, length, time, volume, temperature) using the International System of Units (SI) (i.e., grams, milligrams, meters, millimeters, centimeters, kilometers, liters, milliliters, and degrees Celsius). Measure using tools (e.g., simple microscopes or magnifier, graduated cylinders, gram spring scales, metric rulers, metric balances and Celsius thermometers).
2 Classifying establishes order. Objects, organisms, and events are classified based on similarities, differences, and interrelationships. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.
1 Classify a set of objects, organisms, and/or events using no more than three observable properties (e.g., dichotomous keys).
3 Experimenting is a method of discovering information. It requires making observations and measurements to test ideas. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.
1 Ask questions about the world and formulate an orderly plan to investigate a question.
2 Evaluate the design of a scientific investigation (e.g., order of investigation procedures, number of tested variables).
3 Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
4 Recognize potential hazards and practice safety procedures in all science investigations.
4 Interpreting is the process of recognizing patterns in collected data by making inferences, predictions, or conclusions. Communicating is the process of describing, recording, and reporting experimental procedures and results to others. Communication may be oral, written, or mathematical and includes organizing ideas, using appropriate vocabulary, graphs, other visual representations, and mathematical equations. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.
1 Report data using tables, line, bar, trend, and/or simple circle graphs.
4 Communicate the results of investigations and/or give explanations based on data.
5 Inquiry can be defined as the skills necessary to carry out the process of scientific or systemic thinking. In order for inquiry to occur, students must have the opportunity to ask a question, formulate a procedure, and observe phenomena. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.
1 Use different ways to investigate questions and evaluate the fairness of the test.
2 Use a variety of measurement tools and technology.
3 Formulate a general statement to represent the data.
4 Share results of an investigation in sufficient detail so that data may be combined with data from other students and analyzed further.
1 Describe characteristics of objects based on physical qualities such as size, shape, color, mass, temperature, and texture. Energy can produce changes in properties of objects such as changes in temperature. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:
1 Matter has physical properties that can be used for identification (e.g., color, texture, shape).
3 Energy can be transferred in many ways (e.g., energy from the Sun to air, water, and metal).
4 Energy can be classified as either potential or kinetic.
2 Organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and the environment. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:
1 Organisms in an ecosystem depend on each other for food, shelter, and reproduction.
a Ecosystems include food chains and food webs.
b Relationships exist between consumers, producers, and decomposers within an ecosystem.
c Predators and prey relationships affect populations in an ecosystem.
2 Changes in environmental conditions due to human interactions or natural phenomena can affect the survival of individual organisms and/or entire species.
a Earth's resources can be natural (non-renewable) or man-made (renewable).
b The practices of recycling, reusing, and reducing help to conserve Earth's limited resources.
3 Interaction between air, water, rock/soil, and all living things. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives:
1 Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers.
2 Weather exhibits daily and seasonal patterns (i.e., air temperature, basic cloud types – cumulus, cirrus, stratus, and nimbus, wind direction, wind speed, humidity, precipitation).
a Weather measurement tools include thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and rain gauge.