6.PS1.4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
6.PS1.4.1 Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations.
6.PS1.4.3 The term "heat" as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between two objects.
6.PS1.4.4 The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system's material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material.
6.PS1.4.5 Temperature is not a direct measure of a system's total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called the total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.
6.PS3.3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
6.PS3.3.1 Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter.
6.PS3.3.7 There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
6.PS3.4 Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
6.PS3.4.1 Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter.
6.PS3.4.3 The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
6.PS4.2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
6.PS4.2.1 A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
6.PS4.2.2 When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object's material and the frequency (color) of the light.
6.PS4.2.3 The path that light can travel can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.
6.PS4.2.4 A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media. However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves.
LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes
6.LS1.1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
6.LS1.1.1 All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive.
6.LS1.3 Use an argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
6.LS1.3.1 In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions.
6.LS1.8 Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.
6.LS1.8.1 Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories.
6.ESS1.4.2 Major historical events include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the adaptation and extinction of particular living organisms, volcanic eruptions, periods of massive glaciation, and development of watersheds and rivers through glaciation and water erosion.
6.ESS1.4.3 Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale.
ESS2 Earth's Systems
6.ESS2.1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives these processes within and among Earth's systems.
6.ESS2.1.1 All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produces chemical and physical changes in Earth's materials.