4.PS3.2.3 When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced.
4.PS3.2.4 Light also transfers energy from place to place.
4.PS3.2.5 Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light.
4.PS3.3 Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
4.PS3.3.1 When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced.
4.PS3.3.2 When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects' motions.
4.PS3.4 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
4.PS3.4.1 Energy can be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy.
4.PS3.4.2 The expression "produce energy" typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use.
4.PS3.4.3 Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account.
4.PS3.4.4 The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria).
4.PS3.4.5 Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones.
PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
4.PS4.1 Develop and use a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and to show that waves can cause objects to move.
4.PS4.1.1 Waves, which are regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface.
4.PS4.1.2 When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach.
4.PS4.1.3 Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks).
4.ESS2.1 Plan and conduct investigations on the effects of water, ice, wind, and vegetation on the relative rate of weathering and erosion.
4.ESS2.1.1 Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.