8.PS2.1 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects in a system.
8.PS2.1.1 For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton's third law).
8.PS2.2.3 For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.
8.PS2.3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
8.PS2.3.1 Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects.
8.PS2.4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
8.PS2.4.1 Gravitational forces are always attractive.
8.PS2.4.2 There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass (e.g., Earth and the sun).
8.PS2.5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
8.PS2.5.1 Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).
PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
8.PS4.1 Use mathematical representations to describe patterns in a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
8.PS4.1.1 A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
8.PS4.3 Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.
8.PS4.3.1 Many modern communications devices use digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.
LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes
8.LS1.4 Use arguments based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.
8.LS1.4.1 Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction.
8.LS1.5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.
8.LS1.5.1 Genetic factors, as well as local conditions, affect the growth of the adult plant.
LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
8.LS3.1 Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
8.LS3.1.1 Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual.
8.LS3.2.3 In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other.
8.LS4.1 Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns within the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.
8.LS4.1.1 The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order (e.g., through the location of the sedimentary layers in which they are found) is known as the fossil record. It documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.
8.LS4.2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the patterns of anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer ancestral relationships.
8.LS4.2.1 Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record serve as evidence of ancestral relationships among organisms and changes in populations over time.
8.LS4.3 Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
8.LS4.3.1 Comparison of embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy.
8.LS4.4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
8.LS4.4.1 Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others.
8.LS4.5 Gather and synthesize information about the practices that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
8.LS4.5.1 In artificial selections, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits by genes, which are then passed onto offspring.
8.LS4.5.2 Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.
8.LS4.6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
8.LS4.6.1 Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.
8.LS4.6.2 Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population change.
8.ESS1.1.2 The model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon.
8.ESS1.1.3 Earth's spin axis is fixed in direction over the short term, but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of it'stilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
8.ESS1.3.2 Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.