1 The student will analyze data from a geographic perspective using the skills and tools of geography.
1 Cite specific geographic information to support analysis from primary and secondary sources located in texts, documents, newspapers, magazines, journals, political cartoons, and online news sources.
2 Integrate visual information, draw conclusions, and make predictions from geographic data and analyze spatial distribution and patterns by interpreting that data as displayed on globes, graphs, charts, satellite and other forms of visual imagery including data from bar and line graphs, pie charts, thematic maps, population pyramids, climagraphs, cartagrams, contour/relief maps, GIS systems, and diagrams.
3 Describe basic types of map projections and compare how they display information including Mercator, Peters, and Robinson, and apply the concepts of scale, distance, direction, relative location, absolute location, and latitude and longitude.
4 Integrate visual information and apply the skill of mental mapping of the political and physical features of Earth's surface and to organize information about people, places, and environments.
5 Conduct short research projects by investigating contemporary events and issues from political, economic, social, and geographic perspectives.
6 Commemorate Celebrate Freedom Week by recognizing the sacrifices and contributions to American freedom by veterans and by reciting the social contract selection from the Declaration of Independence:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. – That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
B Major metropolitan areas including New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Washington, DC, Miami, Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Mexico City, Panama City, San Jose, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Caracas, Bogota, Sao Paulo, San Juan, and Havana.
3 Describe the characteristics and relative location of major cultural regions of the Western Hemisphere including
D Hispanic communities of the United States and indigenous peoples of North and South America, and
E French-speaking Quebec.
4 Explain and summarize how common characteristics can link as well as divide regions including
A The question of sovereignty for French-speaking Canadians,
B The free trade relationships established by NAFTA, and
C The establishment of maquiladoras on the United States-Mexican border.
5 Cite specific textual and visual evidence in order to analyze reasons for conflict and cooperation among groups, societies, countries, and regions of the Western Hemisphere including
A The bi-national construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway,
B Disputes between South American nations over fishing rights off the Pacific Coast,
C The strain on international relations caused by immigration, and
D Relief efforts of the United Nations following natural disasters.
3 The student will examine the interactions of physical systems that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.
1 Integrate visual information in order to identify on a physical map and describe the major landforms and bodies of water of the Western Hemisphere including
A Bodies of Water - Mississippi, Colorado, MacKenzie, Rio Grande, and Amazon Rivers, Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, Straits of Magellan and the Bering Strait, Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans, the Great Lakes, and the concept of drainage systems and the Continental Divide.
B Landforms - the Appalachian, Rocky, Andes, and Cascade Mountain Ranges, the Atacama and Sonoran Deserts, the Hawaiian and Greater Antilles archipelagos, the Pampas and Great Plains, the Canadian Shield, the Yucatan Peninsula, the Isthmus of Panama, and the Great Basin.
2 Describe how the processes and factors of latitude, elevation, Earth-Sun relationship, prevailing winds, and proximity to bodies of water influence climate and how humans respond to regional climate patterns and events including drought and El Niño.
3 Analyze the impact of natural disasters on human populations including forced migration, scarcity of consumer goods, and loss of employment.
4 The student will analyze the human systems of the Western Hemisphere in the context of the world's peoples and cultures.
1 Identify and describe cultural traits of language, ethnic heritage, social systems, religion, and traditions including how cultural diffusion impacts societies.
2 Describe and compare examples of the market and command economic systems including how governments affect economic activities in such systems.
3 Describe the major political systems of representative governments (democracy, republic, constitutional monarchy) and authoritarian systems (dictatorship) including the role of the citizen in the selection of government officials, lawmaking, and the liberties guaranteed under different forms of government.
4 Cite specific textual and visual evidence to explain patterns of global economic interdependence and world trade including the concepts of balance of trade, supply and demand, and measures of economic growth including Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
5 Analyze the impact of geography on population location, growth, and change, applying geographic concepts of population density, the availability of resources, settlement patterns, and migrational push and pull factors including the twentieth century Asian and Caribbean refugee migration to North America or the pattern of Hispanic workers migrating to the United States.
5 The student will analyze the interactions of humans and their environment in the western hemisphere.
1 Integrate and compare visual information of the common characteristics of developed and developing countries including access to human and economic capital, the impact of education and technology; and analyze data used by geographers including literacy rate, life expectancy, and per capita income.
2 Summarize the impact of the distribution of major renewable and nonrenewable resources and evaluate how the three levels of economic activities (primary, secondary, and tertiary) contribute to the development of a country or region including
A The United States' and Canada's access to fossil fuels, water, iron, and arable soil,
B Agricultural development dependent on the natural aquifers of the Great Plains,
C The nationalized oil production in Venezuela and Mexico, and
D North America's access to iron and coal enabling a productive steel industry.
3 Evaluate the effects of human modification of and adaptation to the natural environment including
A Terraced farmland of the Andes,
B Construction of the Panama Canal,
C Clear-cutting of the boreal forests of North America, and
D Diversion of the Colorado River for irrigation and municipal water.
4 Analyze regional problems of the western hemisphere having spatial dimensions including
A Oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico,
B Deforestation of Amazonia,
C Air pollution and urban sprawl of Mexico City, and
D Water pollution from industrial run-off into the Great Lakes.
5 Summarize the role of citizens as responsible stewards of natural resources and the environment including
A Careful use of fertilizer and pesticides to avoid polluting the land and the water supply,
B Participation in recycling and anti-littering activities,
C Conservation of natural resources, and
D Support of alternative and sustainable energy sources.