8.1 The student will analyze the foundations of the United States by examining the causes, events, and ideologies which led to the American Revolution.
8.1.1 Describe the political climate in the British colonies prior to the French and Indian War including the policy of salutary neglect, mercantilism through the Navigation Acts and colonial reaction through the Albany Plan of Union; compare the Iroquois Confederacy to early attempts to unite the colonies.
8.1.2 Summarize the political and economic consequences of the French and Indian War including imperial policies of taxation, the Proclamation of 1763, and the migration of colonists into American Indian sovereign territories.
8.2.4 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the British and the American colonists including political and military leadership, military strength, population and resources, motivation, foreign alliances, financial and military support, and the British recruitment of enslaved black men in exchange for freedom.
8.3 The student will examine the formation of the American system of government following the Revolutionary War and the creation of the Constitution of the United States as the supreme law of the land.
8.3.1 Examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation that led to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, including:
8.3.1A resolution of disputes over the western territories as resolved by the Northwest Ordinance
8.3.1B organization and leadership necessary to win the war
8.3.1C lack of a common national currency
8.3.1D lack of a common defense
8.3.1E lack of a national judiciary
8.3.1F mismanagement of war debts due to an inability to tax
8.3.1H civil unrest as typified in Shays' Rebellion
8.3.2 Analyze the significance of the Constitutional Convention, contributions of the Framers, major debates and compromises including the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, Great Compromise, the leadership of James Madison, Father of the Constitution, and George Washington, President of the Convention.
8.3.3 Describe how the framers of the Constitution addressed the issue of slavery including the Three-Fifth Compromise which maintained the institution of slavery in both northern and southern states, the Fugitive Slave Clause, and the delayed ban on the slave trade.
8.3.7 Examine the Federalist and Anti-Federalist arguments for and against the ratification of the Constitution as expressed in the Federalist Papers authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay and the writings of Anti-Federalists, such as George Mason, including concerns over a strong central government and the omission of a bill of rights.
8.3.8 Explain how the Constitution of the United States was amended to include the Bill of Rights; identify and analyze the guarantees of individual rights and liberties as expressed in each of the ten amendments.
8.3.9 Identify the structure and responsibilities of the elected and appointed officials of the three branches of government in relationship to the legislative process, including the role of Congress and the President, as well as the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.
8.4.2 Describe President Washington's attempt to develop a cohesive Indian policy, which included respectful interactions with American Indian leaders, treaties to delineate tribal lands, and precedent-setting practices of assimilation.
8.4.3 Describe the advice in President Washington's Farewell Address and its impact.
8.4.4 Evaluate the impact of the Alien and Sedition Acts on individual rights during the Adams Administration, including the responses of the Democratic-Republicans in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
8.7 The student will examine the political, economic and social transformations of the Jacksonian Era.
8.7.1 Describe the factors that led to the election of Andrew Jackson including the "Corrupt Bargain" election of 1824, the expansion of voting rights, and Jackson's political success by identifying with the "common man."
8.8 The student will examine the political, economic, social, and geographic changes that occurred during the period of westward expansion.
8.8.1 Examine the concept and opposing perspectives toward Manifest Destiny as a motivation and justification for westward expansion.
8.8.2 Explain the territorial growth of the United States including the annexation of Texas, Mexican Cession, and the Gadsden Purchase; describe the need to maintain a balance of "free" and "slave" states.
8.8.3 Identify push and pull factors of mass migration and the settlement of western territories including the California Gold Rush, settlement of Oregon, and the Mormon migration.
8.8.4 Analyze the consequences of westward expansion, including the impact on the culture of American Indians and their homelands, and the growing sectional tensions regarding the expansion of slavery.
8.9 The student will analyze the social and economic transformations of the early nineteenth century.
8.9.1 Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution in the North including the concentration of population, manufacturing, and transportation.
8.9.2 Describe the plantation system and its reliance on a slave labor system in the South, including how Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin increased the profitability of the crop and led to the expansion of slavery.
8.9.5 Identify the ideals, significance, and key leaders of the Second Great Awakening and the Women's Suffrage Movement, including the Declaration of Sentiments and the leadership of Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Sojourner Truth.
8.10.4 Analyze the impact of the Kansas-Nebraska Act on the issue of popular sovereignty in new territories regarding the institution of slavery, repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and factional feuds in Bleeding Kansas.
8.11.2 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the Union and the Confederacy including natural resources, population, industrialization, and the military leadership of Ulysses S Grant and Robert E. Lee.
8.11.3 Evaluate the impact and contributions of specific groups in the Civil War including free and enslaved African Americans, American Indians, women, and immigrants.
8.12.4 Assess the impact of the presidential election of 1876 as an end to reconstruction in the South, including decline of black leadership, loss of enforcement of the 14th and 15th amendments, and the development of segregated societies.