S.5.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (visuals, scenarios, graphs).
S.5.A.1.1.1 Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry and/or technological design (e.g., investigate to find out if all clay or foil boats designs react the same when filled with paperclips).
S.5.A.2 Processes, Procedures, and Tools of Scientific Investigations
S.5.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design to make inferences and solve problems.
S.5.A.2.1.1 Design a simple, controlled experiment (fair test) identifying the independent and dependent variables, how the dependent variable will be measured and which variables will be held constant (e.g., relate the effect of variables [mass, release height, length of string] to number of swings of a pendulum, investigate the relationships between variables in paper airplane designs).
S.5.A.2.1.2 Describe relationships between variables through interpretation of data and observations (i.e., make predictions for the outcome of a controlled experiment using data tables and graphs).
S.5.A.2.2 Apply appropriate instruments for specific purposes and describe the information the instruments can provide.
S.5.A.2.2.1 Describe the appropriate use of instruments and scales to accurately measure time, mass, distance, volume, and temperature safely under a variety of conditions (e.g., use a thermometer to observe and compare the interaction of food coloring in water at different temperatures).
S.5.A.2.2.2 Explain how technology extends and enhances human abilities for specific purposes (e.g., use hand lens to examine crystals in evaporation dishes; use graduated cylinders to measure the amount of water used in a controlled plant experiment).
S.5.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns
S.3.A.3.1 Apply knowledge of systems and patterns to make predictions.
S.5.A.3.1.1 Make predictions based on patterns in natural systems (e.g., phases of the Moon, time [day, month, and year], weather, seasons).
S.5.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions or explain technological concepts.
S.5.A.3.2.1 Describe how models are used to better understand the relationships in natural systems (e.g., water cycle, Sun-Earth- Moon system, ecosystems, observe and draw a diagram to show the effects of flowing water in a watershed).
S.5.C.3.2.2 Identify the variables within an electric current (i.e., voltage, current, and resistance).
S.5.D Earth and Space Sciences
S.5.D.1 Earth Features and Processes That Change Earth and Its Resources
S.5.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources.
S.5.D.1.1.1 Differentiate between abrupt changes in Earth's surface (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, meteor impacts, landslides) and gradual changes in Earth's surface (e.g., lifting up of mountains, wearing away by erosion).
S.5.D.1.1.2 Explain how geological processes observed today (e.g., erosion, changes in the composition of the atmosphere, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes) are similar to those in the past.
S.5.D.1.2 Describe characteristic features of Earth's water systems and their impact on resources.
S.5.D.1.2.1 Identify physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect water quality.
S.5.D.1.2.2 Describe the importance of wetlands in an ecosystem.
S.5.D.2 Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes
S.5.D.2.1 Differentiate between weather and climate.
S.5.D.2.1.1 Explain how the cycling of water into and out of the atmosphere impacts climatic patterns.