Students will understand the social, political, and economic reasons for the movement of people from Europe to the Americas, and they will describe the impact of colonization by Europeans on American Indians and on the development of the land that eventually became the United States of America.
8.1 Explain the primary motivations for English colonization of the New World, including the rise of the middle class (joint stock companies), the need to move surplus population, and the search for religious freedom.
8.5 Describe the settlement of New Netherlands and the subsequent possession of the colony by the English, including:
Renaming to New York
8.6 Analyze the founding of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and the tolerance that drew many different groups to the colony, including:
Role of women
Relationship with Indians
8.7 Explain the reasons behind the settlement of the Georgia Colony, including the role of John Oglethorpe and Georgia as a "debtor" colony and a "buffer" colony.
8.8 Describe the location and reasons for French exploration and settlements in North America, including the Huguenots.
8.9 Cite textual evidence analyzing examples of both cooperation and conflict between American Indians and colonists, including agriculture, trade, cultural exchanges, and military alliances and conflicts.
8.10 Locate and identify the first 13 colonies, and describe how their location and geographic features influenced their development.
8.11 Describe the significance of and the leaders of the First Great Awakening, and the growth in religious toleration and free exercise of religion.
8.12 Compare and contrast the day-to-day colonial life for men, women, and children in different regions and of different ethnicities, including the system of indentured servitude, as well as their connection to the land.
8.13 Analyze the ideas that significantly impacted the development of colonial self-government by citing textual evidence and examining multiple perspectives using excerpts from the following documents:
The First Virginia Charter, 1606
The Mayflower Compact, 1620
Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1629
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639
The New England Articles of Confederation, 1643
The Maryland Toleration Act, 1649
8.14 Identify the origins and development of slavery in the colonies, overt and passive resistance to enslavement, and the Middle Passage.
8.17 Evaluate the contributions of Benjamin Franklin to American society in the areas of science, writing and literature, and politics, including analysis of excerpts from Poor Richard's Almanack, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, the Albany Plan of Union and the Join or Die cartoon.
8.18 Describe the impact of the John Peter Zenger trial on the development of the principle of a free press.
8.19 Describe the causes, course, and outcome of the French and Indian War, including the massacre at Fort Loudoun.
8.23 Determine the central ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence and write an expository piece in which the legacy of these ideas in today's world is described and validated with supporting evidence from the text.
8.24 Using Thomas Paine's Common Sense and The Crisis identify aspects of the texts that reveal the author's point of view and purpose including loaded language.
Students analyze the political principles underlying the Constitution, compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government, and understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate.
8.28 Describe the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact in relation to the development of government in America.
8.29 Analyze the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and their impact on the future development of western settlement and the spread of public education and slavery.
8.30 Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including no power to tax, no common currency, no control of interstate commerce, and no executive branch, failure of the Lost State of Franklin and the impact of Shays' Rebellion.
8.32 Explain the ratification process and describe the conflict between Federalists and Anti-Federalists over ratification, including the need for a Bill of Rights and concern for state's rights, citing evidence from the Federalist Papers N. 10 and 51 and other primary source texts.
8.33 Describe the principles embedded in the Constitution, including the purposes of government listed in the Preamble, separation of powers, check and balances, the amendment process, federalism, and recognition of and protections of individual rights in the Bill of Rights.
8.34 Write an opinion piece arguing for the importance of a particular right as it impacts individuals and/or groups, using evidence from the Bill of Rights and contemporary informational text.
8.35 Analyze the major events of George Washington's presidency, including Pinckney's Treaty, Jay's Treaty, Whiskey Rebellion, and precedents set in the Farewell Address.
8.36 Explain the strict versus loose interpretation of the Constitution and how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties by analyzing their views of foreign policy, economic policy (including the National Bank), funding, and assumption of the revolutionary debt.
8.37 Explain the controversies that plagued the administration of John Adams, including the conflicts with England and France and the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Students analyze the aspirations and ideals of the people of the new nation.
8.38 Describe daily life — including traditions in art, music, and literature — of early national America by examining excerpts from the stories of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper.
8.39 Identify the leaders and events and analyze the impact of western expansion to the development of Tennessee statehood, including:
Treaty of Holston
8.40 Analyze the role played by John Marshall in strengthening the central government, including the key decisions of the Supreme Court - Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden, and McCulloch v. Maryland.
8.41 Explain the major events of Thomas Jefferson's presidency, including his election in 1800, Louisiana Purchase, the defeat of the Barbary pirates, and the Embargo Act.
8.42 Analyze the impact of the Lewis and Clark Expedition by identifying the routes on a map, citing evidence from their journals.
Students analyze United States foreign policy in the early Republic.
8.43 Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the War of 1812, including the major battles, leaders, events and role of Tennessee:
Burning of Washington
William Henry Harrison
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Battle of New Orleans
8.44 Identify on a map the changing boundaries of the United States, including the Convention of 1818 and Adams-Onis Treaty.
8.45 Analyze the relationship the United States had with Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine.
Students analyze the paths of the American people in the three regions of the United States from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced as they became increasingly sectionalized.
8.46 Analyze the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals and railroads, including Henry Clay's American System.
8.47 Explain the causes and effects of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States, and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities as a result of events such as the Great Potato Famine.
8.48 Analyze the 19th century reforms influenced by the 2nd Great Awakening such as the Temperance Movement, Prison Reform, Mental Health Reform, and education, including tent meetings, establishment of new churches, Horace Mann, Dorothea Dix, and temperance societies.
8.49 Analyze the women's suffrage movement and its major proponents, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony and examine excerpts from the writings of Stanton, Anthony and Sojourner Truth.
8.50 Identify common themes in American art and literature, including transcendentalism and individualism by analyzing essays and stories by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
8.51 Trace the development of the agrarian economy in the South, the locations of the cotton-producing states, and the significance of cotton, the cotton gin and the role of Memphis as the Cotton Capital of the South.
8.52 Analyze the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
8.53 Write a narrative with supporting text describing the effects of the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-12 on the land and people of Tennessee.
8.54 Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and analyze the earliest origins of that doctrine.
8.55 Explain the events and impact of the presidency of Andrew Jackson, including the "corrupt bargain," the advent of Jacksonian Democracy, his use of the spoils system and the veto, his battle with the Bank of the United States, the Nullification Crisis and the Indian removal.
8.56 Analyze the contributions of Sequoyah to the Cherokee.
8.57 Write a narrative piece that describes the impact of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the struggle between the Cherokee Nation and the United States government and cites evidence from primary source accounts of the Trail of Tears.
8.58 Describe the concept of Manifest Destiny and its impact on the developing character of the American nation, including the purpose, challenges and economic incentives for westward expansion.
8.59 Describe American settlements in Texas after 1821 and the causes for the Texas War of Independence, including the roles of David Crockett and Sam Houston in the war and the legacy of the Alamo.
8.60 Analyze the reasons, outcome and legacy of groups moving west including the mountain men/trail blazers, Mormons, missionaries, settlers, and the impact of the Oregon Trail and John C. Frémont.
8.61 Describe the major events and impact of the presidency of James K. Polk, including his "Dark Horse" nomination, the settlements of the Oregon boundary, the annexation of Texas, and the acquisition of California through the Mexican War.
8.62 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of the Mexican War, including the controversy over the Rio Grande boundary, the roles played by Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, the Mexican Cession and the Wilmot Proviso.
8.63 Trace the major figures and events in the discovery of gold in California and its impact on the economy of the United States, including John Sutter, and 49'ers.
Students analyze the growth of slavery and the resulting controversies.
8.64 Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance and the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
8.65 Describe the reasons for and the impact of the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
8.66 Analyze the impact of the various leaders of the abolitionist movement, including John Brown and armed resistance; Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad; William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator; Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives; and Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, Virginia Hill and Free Hill, Tennessee; Francis Wright and Nashoba Commune; and Elihu Embree' s The Emancipator.
8.67 Explain the reasons for and the impact of the Compromise of 1850, including the roles played Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun and the Fugitive Slave Law.
8.68 Explain the motivations behind passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, including the rise of the Republican Party, "Bleeding Kansas," the Sumner Brooks incident, and the John Brown raid on Harper's Ferry.
8.69 Analyze the reasons for and applied by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case and the resulting divisiveness between the North and South.
8.70 Examine the arguments presented by Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln in the Illinois Senate race debate of 1858.
8.71 Identify the conditions of enslavement, and explain how slaves adapted and resisted in their daily lives.
Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
8.72 Identify on a map the boundaries constituting the North and the South and delineate and evaluate the geographical differences between the two regions, including the differences between agrarians and industrialists.
8.73 Describe the influence of industrialization and technological developments of the regions, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions - growth of cities, deforestation, farming and mineral extraction.
8.74 Evaluate each candidate and the election of 1860 and analyze how that campaign reflected the sectional turmoil in the country.
8.75 Explain the geographical division of Tennessee over the issue of slavery and secession, including Governor Harris, the secession convention vote of 1861, anti-secession efforts, and Scott County.
8.76 Describe Abraham Lincoln's presidency and his significant writings and speeches, including his House Divided speech in 1858, Gettysburg Address in 1863, Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and inaugural addresses in 1861 and 1865.
8.77 Explain the roles of leaders during the Civil War, including Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and soldiers on both sides of the war, including Tennesseans David Farragut, Nathan Bedford Forrest and William Brownlow.
8.80 Trace the critical developments and events in the war, including geographical advantages and economic advantages of both sides, technological advances and the location and significance of the following battles:
8.86 Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and vigilante justice, including its role in Tennessee.
8.87 Explain the movement of both white and black Northern entrepreneurs (carpetbaggers) from the North to the South.
8.88 Explain the controversy of the 1876 presidential election and the subsequent removal of federal troops from the South.
8.89 Describe the push-pull effect in the movement of former slaves to the North and West, including the Exodusters and Pap Singleton.
8.90 Describe the major developments in Tennessee during the Reconstruction Era, including the Constitutional Convention of 1870, the yellow fever epidemic of 1878 and the election of African-Americans to the General Assembly.
Students analyze the social, political, and economic transformation of America as a result of westward expansion.
8.91 Explain patterns of agricultural and industrial development after the Civil War as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets and trade and the location of such development on a map.
8.92 Trace the evolution of federal policies toward American Indians, including movement to reservations; assimilation, boarding schools, wars with Indians (Little Big Horn and Wounded Knee), and the impact of the railroad and settlement patterns of pioneers, Buffalo Soldiers (George Jordan), and the Dawes Act.
8.93 Explain the significance of various American Indian leaders, including:
8.94 Explain the impact of the Homestead Act.
8.95 Analyze how significant inventors and their inventions, including barbed wire, the six shooter, windmills, sod housing, and the steel plow changed life in the West.
8.96 Trace the expansion and development of the Transcontinental Railroad, including the Golden Spike event (1869), and the role that Chinese immigrant laborers (Central Pacific track) and Irish immigrant laborers (Union Pacific track) played in its construction.
8.97 Examine the development and life of the iconic American cowboy, including his skills, clothes and daily life and work.
8.98 Explain the concepts of the Open Range, Long Drive and cow towns in the development of the American ranching industry.