Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, and social structures of early Africa through the Neolithic Age which led to the development of civilizations.
6.1 Identify sites in Africa where archaeologists and historians have found evidence of the origins of modern human beings and describe what the archaeologists found.
6.2 Provide textual evidence that characterizes the nomadic hunter-gatherer societies of the Paleolithic Age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, beads and other jewelry).
6.3 Explain the importance of the discovery of metallurgy and agriculture.
6.4 Evaluate the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.
6.5 Summarize the impact of agriculture related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization.
6.6 Identify and explain the importance of the characteristics of civilizations, including:
the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions
an economy that produces food surpluses
a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities
the existence of social classes
developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture
a system of record keeping
6.7 Recognize time designations and the abbreviations, including:
circa (c. or ca), decades, centuries, prehistoric, historic
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Mesopotamia.
6.8 On a historical map, locate and describe the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Zagros and Caucuses Mountains, Persian Gulf, Caspian and Black Sea, Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee and explain why the region is referred to as the Fertile Crescent.
6.9 Summarize Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria as successive civilizations and empires and explain the development of city-states, identify Kish, Akkad, Ur, and Nineveh, and the significance of Sargon and Hammurabi.
6.13 Analyze the important achievements of Mesopotamian civilization, including its system of writing (and its importance in record keeping and tax collection), literature (Epic of Gilgamesh), monumental architecture (the ziggurat), and art (large relief sculpture, mosaics, and cylinder seals).
6.14 Write an informative piece explaining the significant contributions of Mesopotamian leaders, including Hammurabi and Sargon, and explain the basic principle of justice in Hammurabi's Code ("an eye for an eye").
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient Egypt.
6.15 On a historical map locate the Mediterranean and Red Seas, the Nile River and Delta, and the areas of ancient Nubia and Egypt. Identify the locations of ancient Upper and Lower Egypt and explain what the terms mean. On a modern map, identify the modern countries of Egypt and the Sudan.
6.16 Investigate the kinds of evidence used by archaeologists and historians to draw conclusions about the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Nubia (the Kingdom of Kush) and their relationship to the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Egypt.
6.17 Develop a visual representation of the structure of Egyptian society including the role of the pharaoh as god/king, the concept of dynasties, the importance of at least one Egyptian ruler, the relationship of pharaohs to peasants, and the role of slaves in ancient Egypt.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient India.
6.23 Locate and describe the Himalayas and the major river systems, including Indus and Ganges and evaluate the importance of each.
6.24 Analyze the impact of the Aryan invasions.
6.25 Explain how the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India evolved into early Hinduism.
6.26 Outline the social structure of the caste system and explain its effect on everyday life in Indian society.
6.27 Write a narrative text describing how Siddhartha Guatama's (Buddha) life experiences influenced his moral teachings and how those teachings became a new religion that spread throughout India and Central Asia as a new religion.
6.28 Describe the growth of the Maurya Empire and the political and moral achievements of the Emperor Asoka.
6.29 Identify the important aesthetic and intellectual traditions, including:
Sanskrit literature, including the Bhagavad-Gita Gita, Ramayana, and the Mahabharata
mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the zero
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient China.
6.30 Identify and locate on a map the geographical features of China, including the Huang He (Yellow) River, Plateau of Tibet, and Gobi Desert.
6.35 List the policies and achievements of the emperor Shi Huang and explain how these contributed to the unification of northern China under the Qin Dynasty and the construction of the Great Wall of China.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient Israel.
6.39 On a historical map of the Mediterranean Sea, Jordon River, Sinai Peninsula, locate Asia Minor, the kingdoms of the Hittites and Phoenicians, ancient Israel, and Egypt.
6.40 Examine the development of the ancient Israelites, tracing their migrations from Mesopotamia to Canaan, later called Israel, and explain the significant roles of Abraham and Moses in their history.
6.42 Describe the unification of the tribes of Israel under Kings Saul, David, and Solomon, including David's founding of Jerusalem as his capital city in 1000 BC/BCE and the building of the first temple by Solomon.
6.43 Summarize the four major events after the rule of King Solomon in the history of Israel, including the breakup of the Kingdom of Israel, destruction of the Northern Kingdom, Babylonian captivity under Nebuchadnezzar, and the return of the Jews to their homeland under the Persian Empire.
6.44 Conduct a short research piece with supporting details of Second Babylonian, Persian, and Median Empires, including Nebuchadnezzar, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great, and Xerxes.
6.45 Explain how Judaism survived the expulsion/dispersion of the Jews to other lands (the Diaspora) after the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD/CE, and the renaming of the country by the Romans.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient Greece.
6.46 On a historical map of the ancient Mediterranean area, locate Greece and trace the boundaries of its influence to 300 BC/BCE. On a contemporary map trace the current boundaries of Greece. Compare and contrast the sphere of influence of Greece in those two different eras.
6.47 Explain how the geographical location of ancient Athens and other city-states contributed to their role in maritime trade, their colonies in the Mediterranean, and the expansion of their cultural influence.
6.48 Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the development of the idea of citizenship.
6.49 Explain how the development of democratic political concepts in ancient Greece lead to the origins of direct Democracy and representative Democracy, including:
6.56 Describe the myths and stories of classical Greece; give examples of Greek gods, goddesses, and heroes (Zeus, Hermes, Aphrodite, Athena, Poseidon, Artemis, Hades, Athena), and events, and where and how we see their names used today.
6.57 Compare and contrast the Titans with the Olympian gods and explain the surrounding Greek mythology.
6.58 Explain why the city-states of Greece instituted a tradition of athletic competitions and describe the sports they featured.
6.59 Describe the purposes and functions of the lyceum, the gymnasium, and the Library of Alexandria, and identify the major accomplishments of the ancient Greeks.
6.62 Explain the rise of the Roman Republic and the role of mythical and historical figures in Roman history, including Romulus and Remus, Hannibal and the Carthaginian Wars, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Hadrian, Aeneas, and Cincinnatus.
6.63 Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its contribution to the development of democratic principles, including the rule of law (a written constitution), separation of powers, checks and balances, representative government, and civic duty.
6.64 Describe the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from a republic to an empire and explain the reasons for the growth and long life of the Roman Empire.
Military organization, tactics, and conquests and decentralized administration
the purpose and functions of taxes
the promotion of economic growth through the use of a standard currency, road construction, and the protection of trade routes
the benefits of a Pax Romana
6.65 Reflect on the impact of the lives of Cleopatra, Marc Anthony, Nero, Diocletian, and Constantine, city of Constantinople on the Roman Empire.
6.66 Identify the location of, and the political and geographic reasons for, the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes.
6.67 Describe the characteristics of slavery under the Romans and explain the slave revolt led by Spartacus.
6.68 Describe the origins and central features of Christianity.
6.69 Analyze how internal and external forces caused the disintegration of the Roman Empire: including the rise of autonomous military powers, political corruption, economic and political instability, shrinking trade, invasions, and attacks by Germanic tribes.
6.70 Describe the contribution of Roman civilization to law, literature, poetry, art, architecture, engineering, and technology. Include the significance of Coliseum, Circus Maximus, roads, bridges, arches, arenas, baths, aqueducts, central heating, plumbing, and sanitation.
6.71 Explain the spread and influence of the Roman alphabet and the Latin language, the use of Latin as the language of education for more than 1,000 years, and the role of Latin and Greek in scientific and academic vocabulary.
6.72 Compare and contrast the Roman gods and goddesses to the Greek gods and goddesses, including Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Neptune, Saturn, Pluto, and Hera and their inclusion in modern society.