b locate and describe major geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range;
c locate major water features and explain their importance to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico; and
d recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs.
Exploration to Revolution: Pre-Columbian Times to the 1770s
USI.3 The student will apply social science skills to understand how early cultures developed in North America by
a describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements, including Cactus Hill in Virginia;
b locating where the American Indians lived, with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Lakota), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois); and
c describing how the American Indians used the resources in their environment.
USI.4 The student will apply social science skills to understand European exploration in North America and West Africa by
a describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations;
c describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and the Marquis de Lafayette; and
c describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.
Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861
USI.8 The student will apply social science skills to understand westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by
a describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California;
USII.6 The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by
a explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity, transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life and standard of living;
b describing the social and economic changes that took place, including prohibition and the Great Migration north and west;
c examining art, literature, and music from the 1920s and 1930s, with emphasis on Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, Georgia O'Keeffe, and the Harlem Renaissance; and
d analyzing the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.
c explaining and evaluating the impact of the war on the home front.
The United States since World War II
USII.8 The student will apply social science skills to understand the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World War II and the present by
a describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World War II, the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers, and the establishment of the United Nations;
b describing the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy;
c examining the role of the United States in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Cuban missile crisis, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the rise of new challenges;
d describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities; and
e evaluating and explaining the impact of international trade and globalization on American life.
USII.9 The student will apply social science skills to understand the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by
a examining the impact of the Civil Rights Movement, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the changing role of women on all Americans;
b analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
c analyzing information to create diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
d determining the accuracy and validity of information by separating fact and opinion and recognizing bias;
e constructing informed, evidence-based arguments from multiple sources;
f determining multiple cause-and-effect relationships that impact political and economic events;
g taking informed action to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
h using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the costs and benefits of a specific choice;
i applying civic virtue and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
j defending conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from sources.
CE.2 The student will apply social science skills to understand the foundations of American constitutional government by
a explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and representative government;
b examining and evaluating the impact of the Magna Carta, charters of the Virginia Company of London, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom on the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights;
c describing the purposes for the Constitution of the United States as stated in its Preamble; and
d describing the procedures for amending the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States.
CE.3 The student will apply social science skills to understand citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by
a describing the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the United States;
b describing the First Amendment freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition, and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws;
c describing the duties of citizenship, including obeying the laws, paying taxes, defending the nation, and serving in court;
d examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society; and