RW.9-10.3.1 Write well-developed, unbiased arguments that are supported by substantive, valid reasoning and evidence.
RW.9-10.3.1.a Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
RW.9-10.3.1.a.i Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
RW.9-10.3.1.a.ii Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
RW.9-10.3.1.a.iii Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
RW.9-10.3.1.a.vi Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
RW.9-10.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts using complex ideas and organizational structures and features that are useful to audience comprehension.
RW.9-10.3.2.a Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
RW.9-10.3.2.a.i Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (for example: headings), graphics (for example: figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
RW.9-10.3.2.a.ii Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
RW.9-10.3.2.a.vi Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (for example, articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
RW.9-10.3.3 Write engaging real or imagined narratives using multiple plot lines.
RW.9-10.3.3.a Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
RW.9-10.3.3.a.i Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing multiple points of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
RW.9-10.3.3.a.v Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
RW.9-10.3.3.a.vi Use a range of stylistic devices (for example: poetic techniques, figurative language, imagery, graphic elements) to support the presentation of implicit or explicit themes or to engage and entertain the intended audience.
RW.9-10.3.4.a.ii Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
RW.9-10.3.4.b.iii Correctly spell frequently used words and consult reference materials (for example: dictionaries, both print and digital, spell check, and/or trusted peers and/or adults) to determine the spelling of less frequent vocabulary.
RW.9-10.3.4.c Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
RW.9-10.3.4.c.i Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (for example: MLA Handbook, or APA handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
RW.9-10.3.4.e Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
RW.9-10.3.4.f Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
RW.9-10.3.4.g Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.