RW.11-12.3.1 Write thoughtful, well-developed arguments that support knowledgeable and significant claims, anticipating and addressing the audience's values and biases.
RW.11-12.3.1.a Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
RW.11-12.3.1.a.i Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
RW.11-12.3.1.a.ii Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
RW.11-12.3.1.a.iii Use words, phrases, clauses, as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, to create cohesion, and to clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
RW.11-12.3.1.a.v Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
RW.11-12.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
RW.11-12.3.2.a Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
RW.11-12.3.2.a.i Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (for example: headings), graphics (for example: figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
RW.11-12.3.2.a.ii Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
RW.11-12.3.2.a.vi Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (for example: articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
RW.11-12.3.3 Write engaging and significant real or imagined narratives that build toward a particular tone or outcome.
RW.11-12.3.3.a Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
RW.11-12.3.3.a.i Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
RW.11-12.3.3.a.ii Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
RW.11-12.3.3.a.iii Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (for example, a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
RW.11-12.3.3.a.iv Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
RW.11-12.3.4.b.ii Correctly spell frequently used words and consult reference materials (for example: dictionaries, both print and digital, spell check, and/or trusted peers and/or adults) to determine the spelling of less frequent vocabulary.
RW.11-12.3.4.c Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
RW.11-12.3.4.c.i Vary syntax for effect, consulting references for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
RW.11-12.3.4.e Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
RW.11-12.3.4.f Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
RW.11-12.3.4.g Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.