b Use fractions and decimals, and translate between decimals and commonly encountered fractions - halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, tenths, and hundredths (but not sixths, sevenths, and so on) - in scientific calculations.
c Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities, such as length, area, volume, weight, or time, are reasonable answers to scientific problems by comparing them to typical values.
S4CS3 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating objects in scientific activities utilizing safe laboratory procedures.
a Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things.
b Measure and mix dry and liquid materials in prescribed amounts, exercising reasonable safety.
c Use computers, cameras and recording devices for capturing information.
d Identify and practice accepted safety procedures in manipulating science materials and equipment.
S4CS4 Students will use ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters.
a Observe and describe how parts influence one another in things with many parts.
b Use geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories to represent corresponding features of objects, events, and processes in the real world. Identify ways in which the representations do not match their original counterparts.
b Identify when comparisons might not be fair because some conditions are different.
S4CS7 Students will be familiar with the character of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved. Students will recognize that:
a Similar scientific investigations seldom produce exactly the same results, which may differ due to unexpected differences in whatever is being investigated, unrecognized differences in the methods or circumstances of the investigation, or observational uncertainties.
b Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today.
S4CS8 Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:
a Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments.
b Clear and active communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world.
c Scientists use technology to increase their power to observe things and to measure and compare things accurately.
d Science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.
Co-Requisite - Content
S4E1 Students will compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars, star patterns, and planets.
a Recognize the physical attributes of stars in the night sky such as number, size, color and patterns.
b Compare the similarities and differences of planets to the stars in appearance, position, and number in the night sky.
c Explain why the pattern of stars in a constellation stays the same, but a planet can be seen in different locations at different times.
d Identify how technology is used to observe distant objects in the sky.
S4E2 Students will model the position and motion of the earth in the solar system and will explain the role of relative position and motion in determining sequence of the phases of the moon.
a Explain the day/night cycle of the earth using a model.
b Explain the sequence of the phases of the moon.
c Demonstrate the revolution of the earth around the sun and the earth's tilt to explain the seasonal changes.
d Demonstrate the relative size and order from the sun of the planets in the solar system.
S4E3 Students will differentiate between the states of water and how they relate to the water cycle and weather.
a Demonstrate how water changes states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (water vapor/steam) and changes from gas to liquid to solid.