1 Students examine the relationship and significance of themes, concepts, and movements in the development of United States history, including review of key ideas related to the colonization of America and the revolution and Founding Era. This will be followed by emphasis on social reform, national development and westward expansion, and the Civil War and Reconstruction period.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States: 1754 to 1801
8.1.1 Identify the major Native American Indian groups of eastern North America and identify cause and effect relationships between European settlers and these Native American groups that led to conflict and cooperation.
8.1.2 Compare and contrast reasons for British, French, Spanish and Dutch colonization in the New World.
8.1.5 Analyze the causes and effects of the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), including the ideas from the Declaration of Independence, the enactment of the Articles of Confederation and the Treaty of Paris (1783).
8.1.6 Identify and provide the significance of major events in the creation of the Constitution such as: the enactment of state constitutions, the weakness of the Articles of Confederation, the Constitutional conventions, the willingness to compromise, and the Federalist- anti Federalist debates regarding the vote to ratify the Constitution.
8.1.9 Identify the events leading up to the presidential and congressional election of 1800 and the transfer of political authority and power to the Democratic-Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson (1801); evaluate the significance of these events.
8.1.10 Analyze the influence of important individuals on social and political developments of the time (1775 – 1800) such as the Independence movement and the framing of the Constitution.
8.1.11 Compare and contrast the ways of life in the northern and southern states, including the growth of towns and cities and the growth of industry in the North and the growing dependence on slavery and the production of cotton in the South causing early sectionalism in America.
8.1.14 Analyze the causes and consequences of the War of 1812.
8.1.15 Define nationalism and explain how it affected domestic policy, foreign policy, and the development of an industrial economy during this period.
8.1.16 Identify the key ideas of Jacksonian democracy and explain their influence on political participation, political parties and constitutional government; analyze Jackson's actions as President such as the destruction of the National Bank, the nullification crisis, and Jackson's Indian policy.
8.1.20 Give examples of how immigration affected American culture in the decades before and the Civil War, including growth of industrial sites in the North; religious differences; tensions between middle-class and working-class people, particularly in the Northeast; and intensification of cultural differences between the North and the South.
8.1.21 Give examples of the changing role of women, minorities, and immigrants in the northern, southern and western parts of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, and examine possible causes for these changes.
8.1.22 Describe the abolitionist movement and identify figures and organizations involved in the debate over slavery, including leaders of the Underground Railroad, and how the movement affected the division between the North and South.
8.1.26 Compare and contrast the three plans for Reconstruction and evaluate the merits of each.
8.1.27 Describe causes and lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction as well as the political controversies surrounding this time such as Andrew Johnson's impeachment, the Black Codes, and the Compromise of 1877.
8.1.31 Compare and contrast examples of art, music, literature, and other forms of expression; explain how these reflect American culture during this time period.
Civics and Government
2 Students explain the major principles, values and institutions of constitutional government and citizenship, which are based on the founding documents of the United States and how the three branches of government share and check power within our federal system of government.
Foundations of Government
8.2.1 Identify and explain essential ideas of constitutional government, which include limited government; rule of law; due process of law; separated and shared powers; checks and balances; federalism; popular sovereignty; republicanism; representative government; and individual rights to life, liberty and property; and freedom of conscience.
8.2.10 Research and defend positions on issues in which fundamental values and principles related to the United States Constitution are in conflict such as: 1st and 2nd Amendment rights, the right to privacy, and the rights of the individual.
3 Students identify the major geographic characteristics of the United States and its regions. They name and locate the major physical features of the United States, as well as demonstrate a broad understanding of the states, capitals and major cities, and use geographic skills and technology to examine the influence of geographic factors on national development.
The World in Spatial Terms
8.3.1 Read maps to interpret symbols and determine the landforms and human features that represent physical and cultural characteristics of regions in the United States.
Places and Regions
8.3.2 Read and interpret maps that portray the physical growth and development of the United States from colonization through Reconstruction (1877).
8.3.9 Identify and interpret maps, graphs and charts showing the distribution of natural resources such as forests, water sources and wildlife in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century and give examples of how people exploited these resources as the country became more industrialized and people moved westward.
4 Students identify, describe and evaluate the influence of economic factors on national development from the founding of the nation to the end of Reconstruction.
8.4.1 Identify economic factors contributing to European exploration and colonization in North America, the American Revolution and the drafting of the Constitution of the United States.
8.4.2 Identify and explain the four types of economic systems (traditional, command, market, and mixed); evaluate how the characteristics of a market economy have affected the economic and labor development of the United States.