1 Students examine the relationship and significance of themes, concepts, and movements in the development of United States history, including review of key ideas related to the colonization of America and the revolution and Founding Era. This will be followed by emphasis on social reform, national development and westward expansion, and the Civil War and Reconstruction period.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States: 1754 to 1801
8.1.1 Identify the major Native American Indian groups of eastern North America and describe early conflict and cooperation between European settlers and these Native American groups.
8.1.2 Compare and contrast reasons for British, French, Spanish and Dutch colonization in the New World.
8.1.3 Explain the conditions, causes, consequences and significance of Britain's struggle to maintain control of colonies during the French and Indian War (1754–1763).
8.1.5 Analyze the causes and effects of the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), including the ideas from the Declaration of Independence, the enactment of the Articles of Confederation and the Treaty of Paris (1783).
8.1.6 Identify and give the significance of major events in the creation of the Constitution such as: the enactment of state constitutions, the Constitutional conventions, the willingness to compromise, and the Federalist- anti Federalist debates regarding the vote to ratify the Constitution.
8.1.7 Identify and explain the steps taken during the Washington Administration and the First and Second Congresses of the United States to establish a stable and lasting national government.
8.1.8 Compare and contrast the views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton and explain how their differences gave rise to the development of political parties.
8.1.9 Identify the events leading up to the presidential and congressional election of 1800 and the transfer of political authority and power to the Democratic-Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson (1801); Evaluate the significance of these events.
8.1.10 Analyze the influence of important individuals on social and political developments of the time (1775 – 1800) such as the Independence movement and the framing of the Constitution.
8.1.11 Compare and contrast the ways of life in the northern and southern states, including the growth of towns and cities and the growth of industry in the North and the growing dependence on slavery and the production of cotton in the South.
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861
8.1.12 Interpret how the events surrounding the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-1806) allowed for America's initial push towards westward expansion.
8.1.13 Explain the main issues, consequences, and landmark decisions of the Marshall Court.
8.1.14 Analyze the causes and consequences of the War of 1812.
8.1.15 Define nationalism and understand the direction nationalism gave to domestic and foreign policy and to the development of an industrial economy during this period.
8.1.16 Identify the key ideas of Jacksonian democracy and explain their influence on political participation, political parties and constitutional government; analyze Jackson's actions as President such as the destruction of the National Bank, the nullification crisis, and Jackson's Indian policy.
8.1.17 Explain relationships and conflict between settlers and Native Americans on the frontier.
8.1.18 Describe the causes, courses, challenges, compromises, and consequences associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny.
8.1.19 Analyze the causes and effects of the Mexican War (1846-1848).
8.1.20 Give examples of how immigration affected American culture in the decades before and the Civil War, including growth of industrial sites in the North; religious differences; tensions between middle-class and working-class people, particularly in the Northeast; and intensification of cultural differences between the North and the South.
8.1.21 Give examples of the changing role of women, minorities, and immigrants in the northern, southern and western parts of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, and examine possible causes for these changes.
8.1.22 Describe the abolitionist movement and identify figures and organizations involved in the debate over slavery, including leaders of the Underground Railroad.
8.1.26 Compare and contrast the three plans for Reconstruction and evaluate the merits of each.
8.1.27 Describe causes and lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction as well as the political controversies surrounding this time such as Andrew Johnson's impeachment, the Black Codes, and the Compromise of 1877.
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, and Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making
8.1.28 Recognize historical perspective and evaluate alternative courses of action by describing the historical context in which events unfolded.
8.1.29 Differentiate between facts and historical interpretations of events, recognizing that the historian's narrative reflects his or her judgment about the significance of particular facts.
8.1.30 Using primary and secondary sources, analyze an issue confronting the United States from colonial times through the Reconstruction period.
8.1.31 Compare and contrast examples of art, music, literature, and other forms of expression; explain how these reflect American culture during this time period.
2 Students explain the major principles, values and institutions of constitutional government and citizenship, which are based on the founding documents of the United States and how the three branches of government share and check power within our federal system of government.
Foundations of Government
8.2.1 Identify and explain essential ideas of constitutional government, which include limited government; rule of law; due process of law; separated and shared powers; checks and balances; federalism; popular sovereignty; republicanism; representative government; and individual rights to life, liberty and property; and freedom of conscience.
8.2.9 Explain how citizens can monitor and influence the development and implementation of public policies at local, state and national levels of government.
8.2.10 Research and defend positions on issues in which fundamental values and principles related to the United States Constitution are in conflict such as: 1st and 2nd Amendment rights, the right to privacy, and the rights of the individual.
3 Students identify the major geographic characteristics of the United States and its regions. They name and locate the major physical features of the United States, as well as demonstrate a broad understanding of the states, capitals and major cities, and use geographic skills and technology to examine the influence of geographic factors on national development.
The World in Spatial Terms
8.3.1 Read maps to interpret symbols and determine the land forms and human features that represent physical and cultural characteristics of regions in the United States.
Places and Regions
8.3.2 Read and interpret maps that portray the physical growth and development of the United States from colonization through Reconstruction (1877).
8.3.3 Identify and locate the major climate regions in the United States and describe the characteristics of these regions.
8.3.4 Identify the major mountain ranges and river systems of the United States and explain the importance of these physical features in the development of America.
8.3.5 Identify the agricultural regions of the United States and be able to give explanations for how the land was used and developed during the growth of the United States.
8.3.6 Using maps identify changes influenced by growth, economic development and human migration in the United States.
8.3.7 Using primary and secondary sources, identify ways people modified the physical environment as the United States developed and describe the impacts that resulted.
8.3.8 Analyze human and physical factors that have influenced migration and settlement patterns and relate them to the economic development of the United States.
8.3.9 Identify and interpret maps, graphs and charts showing the distribution of natural resources such as forests, water sources and wildlife in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century and give examples of how people exploited these resources as the country became more industrialized and people moved westward.
4 Students identify, describe and evaluate the influence of economic factors on national development from the founding of the nation to the end of Reconstruction.
8.4.1 Identify economic factors contributing to European exploration and colonization in North America, the American Revolution and the drafting of the Constitution of the United States.
8.4.2 Identify and explain the four types of economic systems (traditional, command, market, and mixed); evaluate how the characteristics of a market economy have affected the economic and labor development of the United States.
8.4.3 Explain how federal, state, and local governments are involved in the economy of the United States.
8.4.4 Analyze contributions of entrepreneurs and inventors in the development of the United States economy to 1877.
8.4.5 Relate how new technology and inventions brought about changes in labor productivity in the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
8.4.6 Trace the development of different kinds of money used in the United States.
8.4.7 Trace the development of the banking system in the United States.
8.4.8 Explain and evaluate examples of domestic and international interdependence throughout United States history.