SS-8-GC-U-3 the fundamental values and principles (e.g., liberty, justice, individual human dignity, the rule of law) of American representative democracy as expressed in historical documents (e.g., the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States) are enduring and remain significant today.
SS-8-GC-U-4 the Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches. The Constitution is a document that can be changed from time to time through both formal and informal processes (e.g., amendments, court cases, executive actions) to meet the needs of its citizens.
SS-8-GC-U-5 as members of a democratic society, all citizens of the United States have certain rights and responsibilities, including civic participation.
Skills and Concepts
SS-8-GC-S-1 demonstrate an understanding (e.g., illustrate, write, model, projects, present) of the nature of government:
a explain the role of government (e.g., establishing order, providing security, achieving common goals) in the United States prior to Reconstruction and make connections to how government influences culture, society and the economy
b describe how democratic governments in the United States prior to Reconstruction functioned to preserve and protect the rights (e.g., voting), liberty and property of their citizens by making, enacting and enforcing rules and laws (e.g., constitutions, laws, statutes)
c compare purposes and sources of power in the most common forms of government (e.g., monarchy, democracy, republic)
SS-8-GC-S-2 investigate the Constitution of the United States:
a examine ways the Constitution is a document that can be changed from time to time through both formal and informal processes (e.g., amendments, court cases, executive actions) to meet the needs of its citizens
b explain the political process established by the U.S. Constitution and ways the Constitution separates power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches to prevent the concentration of political power and to establish a system of checks and balances
c analyze why the powers of the state and federal governments are sometimes shared and sometimes separated (federalism)
SS-8-GC-S-3 make inferences about and among significant historical events and historical documents (e.g., the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States) to illustrate connections to democratic principles and guaranteed rights for all citizens
SS-8-GC-S-4 explain pros and cons of how citizen responsibilities (e.g., participate in community activities, vote in elections) and duties (e.g., obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury, register for the military) impact the U.S. government's ability to function as a democracy
SS-8-GC-S-5 analyze information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., books, documents, articles, interviews, Internet) to research answers to questions and explore issues
Cultures and Societies
Enduring Knowledge – Understandings
SS-8-CS-U-1 culture is a system of beliefs, knowledge, institutions, customs/traditions, languages and skills shared by a group of people. Through a society's culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.
SS-8-CS-U-2 cultures develop social institutions (e.g., government, economy, education, religion, family) to structure society, influence behavior, and respond to human needs.
SS-8-CS-U-3 interactions among individuals and groups assume various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) and are influenced by culture.
SS-8-CS-U-4 multiple factors contributed to the cultural diversity of the United States prior to Reconstruction; an understanding and appreciation of the diverse complexity of cultures is essential in our society.
Skills and Concepts
SS-8-CS-S-1 demonstrate an understanding (e.g., speak, draw, write, sing, create) of the nature of culture by exploring cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, customs/traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts) of diverse groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction and explain how culture served to define specific groups and resulted in unique perspectives
SS-8-CS-S-2 investigate social institutions (e.g., family, religion, education, government, economy) in relation to how they responded to human needs, structured society and influenced behavior in the United States prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-CS-S-3 explain how communications between groups were influenced by cultural differences; explain how interactions influenced conflict and competition (e.g., political, economic, religious, ethnic) among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-CS-S-4 describe conflicts between individuals or groups and explain how compromise and cooperation were possible choices to resolve conflict among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-CS-S-5 compare examples of cultural elements of today to those in the United States prior to Reconstruction, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., media, literature, interviews, observations, documentaries, artifacts)
Enduring Knowledge – Understandings
SS-8-E-U-1 the basic economic problem confronting individuals, societies and government in the development of the United States prior to Reconstruction was scarcity; as a result of scarcity, economic choices and decisions were made.
SS-8-E-U-2 the development of the American economic system, institutions and markets prior to Reconstruction helped individuals, groups and governments achieve their goals and impacted life in the United States.
SS-8-E-U-3 the United States government and its policies played a major role in determining how the U.S. economy functioned prior to Reconstruction.
SS-8-E-U-4 individuals, businesses and the government of the U.S. prior to Reconstruction made economic decisions about the use of resources in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
Skills and Concepts
SS-8-E-S-1 demonstrate an understanding of the nature of limited resources and scarcity in the United States prior to Reconstruction, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., news media, news magazines, textbook, Internet):
a explain how scarcity required individuals, groups and governments to make decisions about use of productive resources (e.g., natural resources, human resources and capital goods)
b describe how goods and services were exchanged and how supply and demand and competition determined prices
c analyze cause-effect relationships among financial decisions by individuals and groups and historical events
SS-8-E-S-2 investigate the production and distribution of goods and services in the United States prior to Reconstruction:
a examine ways in which basic economic questions about the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services were addressed
b explain how resources were used to produce goods and services and how profit motivated individuals and groups to take risks in producing goods and services
c analyze how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization influenced productivity of goods and services
SS-8-E-S-3 analyze interdependence of economic activities among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-G-U-1 use of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, photographs, models, charts, graphs, databases) and mental maps helps to interpret information, analyze patterns and spatial data, and understand geographic issues encountered in the United States prior to Reconstruction.
SS-8-G-U-2 patterns emerge as humans move, settle, and interact on Earth's surface and can be identified by examining the location of physical and human characteristics, how they are arranged, and why they are in particular locations. Economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation and conflict in the United States prior to Reconstruction.
SS-8-G-U-3 regions help us to see Earth as an integrated system of places and features organized by such principles as landform types, political units, economic patterns and cultural groups.
SS-8-G-U-4 people depended on, adapted to, or modified the environment to meet basic needs. Human actions modified the physical environment and in turn, the physical environment limited or promoted human activities in the United States prior to Reconstruction.
Skills and Concepts
SS-8-G-S-1 demonstrate an understanding of patterns on Earth's surface using a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs, photographs, models):
a locate, in absolute or relative terms, landforms and bodies of water
b locate, interpret patterns on Earth's surface, and explain how different physical factors (e.g., rivers, mountains, seacoasts) impacted where human activities were located in the United States prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-G-S-2 investigate regions of the Earth's surface in the United States prior to Reconstruction using information from print and non-print sources (e.g., books, films, magazines, Internet, geographic tools):
a explain relationships between and among physical characteristics of regions and how they were made distinctive by human characteristics (e.g., dams, roads, urban centers); describe advantages and disadvantages for human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement) that resulted
b describe patterns of human settlement; explain relationships between these patterns and human needs; analyze how factors (e.g., war, famine, disease, economic opportunity, and technology) affected human migration
c evaluate how availability of technology, resources and knowledge caused places and regions to evolve and change
d analyze current events to compare geographic perspectives of today with those prior to Reconstruction
SS-8-G-S-3 investigate interactions among human activities and the physical environment in the United States prior to Reconstruction:
a explain how people used technology to modify the physical environment to meet their needs
b describe how the physical environment and different viewpoints promoted or restricted human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) and land use
c analyze cause-effect relationships between and among natural resources and political, social and economic development
Enduring Knowledge – Understandings
SS-8-HP-U-1 history is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature, and a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) are needed to analyze and understand historical events.
SS-8-HP-U-2 U.S. History can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Exploration as it relates to the settlement of America, The Great Convergence, Colonization and Settlement, Revolution and the New Nation, Expansion and Reform, Civil War) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation.
SS-8-HP-S-1 demonstrate an understanding of the interpretative nature of history using a variety of tools and resources (e.g., primary and secondary sources, Internet, timelines, maps):
a investigate, describe and analyze significant historical events and conditions in the U.S prior to Reconstruction, drawing inferences about perspectives of different individuals and groups (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, age, economic status, religion, political group)
b examine multiple cause-effect relationships that have shaped history (e.g., showing how a series of events are connected)
SS-8-HP-S-2 investigate, using primary and secondary sources (e.g., biographies, films, magazines, Internet resources, textbooks, artifacts) to answer questions about, locate examples of, or interpret factual and fictional accounts of major historical events and people:
a analyze how exploration and the settlement of America caused diverse cultures to interact in various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition); explain how governments expanded their territories and the impact this had on the United States prior to Reconstruction
b describe events and conditions that led to the "Great Convergence" of European, African and Native American people beginning in the late 15th century; analyze how America's diverse society developed as a result of these events
c explain how the ideals of equality and personal liberty (e.g., rise of individual rights, economic freedom, religious diversity) that developed during the colonial period were motivations for the American Revolution and proved instrumental in forging a new nation
e compare the political, social, economic and cultural differences (e.g., slavery, tariffs, industrialism vs. agrarianism, federal vs. states' rights) between and among regions of the U.S. and explain how these differences contributed to the American Civil War