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Skills available for Ohio seventh-grade science standards

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ESS Earth and Space Science

  • Cycles and Patterns of Earth and the Moon

    • 7.ESS.1 The hydrologic cycle illustrates the changing states of water as it moves through the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

    • 7.ESS.2 Thermal-energy transfers in the ocean and the atmosphere contribute to the formation of currents, which influence global climate patterns.

      • 7.ESS.2.a The sun is the major source of energy for wind, air and ocean currents and the hydrologic cycle. As thermal energy transfers occur in the atmosphere and ocean, currents form. Large bodies of water can influence weather and climate. The jet stream is an example of an atmospheric current and the Gulf Stream is an example of an oceanic current. Ocean currents are influenced by factors other than thermal energy, such as water density, mineral content (such as salinity), ocean floor topography and Earth's rotation. All of these factors delineate global climate patterns on Earth.

    • 7.ESS.3 The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations and contains a mixture of gases that cycle through the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

      • 7.ESS.3.a The atmosphere is held to the Earth by the force of gravity. There are defined layers of the atmosphere that have specific properties, such as temperature, chemical composition and physical characteristics. Gases in the atmosphere include nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Biogeochemical cycles illustrate the movement of specific elements or molecules (such as carbon or nitrogen) through the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

    • 7.ESS.4 The relative patterns of motion and positions of Earth, moon and sun cause solar and lunar eclipses, tides and phases of the moon.

      • 7.ESS.4.a The moon's orbit and its change of position relative to Earth and sun result in different parts of the moon being visible from Earth (phases of the moon).

      • 7.ESS.4.b A solar eclipse is when Earth moves into the shadow of the moon (during a new moon). A lunar eclipse is when the moon moves into the shadow of Earth (during a full moon).

      • 7.ESS.4.c Gravitational force between Earth and the moon causes daily oceanic tides. When the gravitational forces from the sun and moon align (at new and full moons) spring tides occur. When the gravitational forces of the sun and moon are perpendicular (at first and last quarter moons), neap tides occur.

    • 7.ESS.5 The relative positions of Earth and the sun cause patterns we call seasons.

      • 7.ESS.5.a Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5°. This tilt along with Earth's revolution around the sun, affects the amount of direct sunlight that the earth receives in a single day and throughout the year. The average daily temperature is related to the amount of direct sunlight received.

PS Physical Science

LS Life Science