1 Historians and archaeologists describe historical events and issues from the perspectives of people living at the time to avoid evaluating the past in terms of today's norms and values.
2 The civilizations that developed in Greece and Rome had an enduring impact on later civilizations. This legacy includes governance and law, engineering and technology, art and architecture, as well as literature and history. The Roman Empire also played an instrumental role in the spread of Christianity.
3 Germanic invasions helped to break up the Roman Empire and set the stage for the development of feudal and manorial systems. Later invasions helped establish Mongol dominance in central Asia and led to the destruction of the Byzantine Empire by the Turks.
4 Mongol influence led to unified states in China and Korea, but the Mongol failure to conquer Japan allowed a feudal system to persist.
5 Achievements in medicine, science, mathematics and geography by the Islamic civilization dominated most of the Mediterranean after the decline of the Roman Empire. These achievements were introduced into Western Europe as a result of the Muslim conquests, Crusades and trade, influencing the European Renaissance.
18 With the decline of feudalism, consolidation of power resulted in the emergence of nation states.
Economic Decision Making and Skills
19 Individuals, governments and businesses must analyze costs and benefits when making economic decisions. A cost-benefit analysis consists of determining the potential costs and benefits of an action and then balancing the costs against the benefits.