5-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of Reconstruction and its impact on the United States.
Reconstruction was a period of great hope, incredible change, and efforts at rebuilding. To understand Reconstruction and race relations in the United States, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-1.1 Summarize the aims and course of Reconstruction, including the effects of Abraham Lincoln's assassination, Southern resistance to the rights of freedmen, and the agenda of the Radical Republicans.
5-1.2 Explain the effects of Reconstruction, including new rights under the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments; the actions of the Freedmen's Bureau; and the move from a plantation system to sharecropping.
5-2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the continued westward expansion of the United States.
People moved West seeking economic opportunities. To understand the challenges faced by migrants and immigrants as they moved West and the impact of this movement on the native peoples of the region, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-2.1 Analyze the geographic and economic factors that influenced westward expansion and the ways that these factors affected travel and settlement, including physical features of the land; the climate and natural resources; and land ownership and other economic opportunities.
5-2.2 Summarize how technologies (such as railroads, the steel plow and barbed wire), federal policies (such as subsidies for the railroads and the Homestead Act), and access to natural resources affected the development of the West.
5-2.3 Identify examples of conflict and cooperation between occupational and ethnic groups in the West, including miners, farmers, ranchers, cowboys, Mexican and African Americans, and European and Asian immigrants.
5-2.4 Explain the social and economic effects of westward expansion on Native Americans; including opposing views on land ownership, Native American displacement, the impact of the railroad on the culture of the Plains Indians, armed conflict, and changes in federal policy.
5-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of major domestic and foreign developments that contributed to the United States becoming a world power.
The Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and access to resources contributed to the United States becoming a world power in the early twentieth century. At the same time, discriminatory practices abounded. To understand the rise of the United States as a world power, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-3.1 Explain how the Industrial Revolution was furthered by new inventions and technologies, including new methods of mass production and transportation and the invention of the light bulb, the telegraph, and the telephone.
5-3.2 Explain the practice of discrimination and the passage of discriminatory laws in the United States and their impact on the rights of African Americans, including the Jim Crow laws and the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson.
5-3.3 Summarize the significance of large-scale immigration to America, including the countries from which the people came, the opportunities and resistance they faced when they arrived, and the cultural and economic contributions they made to the United States.
5-3.4 Summarize the impact of industrialization, urbanization, and the rise of big business, including the development of monopolies; long hours, low wages, and unsafe working conditions on men, women, and children laborers; and resulting reform movements.
5-3.5 Summarize the reasons for the United States control of new territories as a result of the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal, including the need for raw materials and new markets and competition with other world powers.
5-3.6 Summarize the factors that led to the involvement of the United States in World War I and the role of the United States in fighting the war.
5-4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of American economic challenges in the 1920s and 1930s and world conflict in the 1940s.
Along with the rest of the world, the United States experienced a boom-and-bust period during the 1920s and 1930s. In the United States, this situation led to significant government intervention to stimulate the economy. Other countries did not follow the same course of action, however, and the resulting political instability and subsequent worldwide response consumed the world in the 1940s. To understand the role of the United States in the world during this period, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-4.1 Summarize daily life in the post–World War I period of the 1920s, including improvements in the standard of living, transportation, and entertainment; the impact of the Nineteenth Amendment, the Great Migration, the Harlem Renaissance, and Prohibition; and racial and ethnic conflict.
5-4.2 Summarize the causes of the Great Depression, including overproduction and declining purchasing power, the bursting of the stock market bubble in 1929, and the resulting unemployment, failed economic institutions; and the effects of the Dust Bowl.
5-4.3 Explain the American government's response to the Great Depression in the New Deal policies of President Franklin Roosevelt, including the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Social Security Act.
5-4.4 Explain the principal events related to the involvement of the United States in World War II, including campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean; major battles of the European theater such as the Battle of Britain, the invasion of the Soviet Union, and the Normandy invasion; and events in the Pacific theater such as Pearl Harbor, the strategy of island-hopping, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
5-4.7 Summarize the social and political impact of World War II on the American home front and the world, including opportunities for women and African Americans in the work place, the internment of the Japanese Americans, and the changes in national boundaries and governments.
5-5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the social, economic and political events that influenced the United States during the Cold War era.
The post–World War II period was dominated by a power conflict that pitted former allies against each other over economic and political differences. This Cold War affected all aspects of American life at home and abroad. To understand the impact of the Cold War, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-5.1 Explain the causes and the course of the Cold War between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States, including McCarthyism, the spread of communism, the Korean Conflict, Sputnik, the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Vietnam War.
5-5.2 Summarize the social, cultural, and economic developments that took place in the United States during the Cold War, including consumerism, mass media, the growth of suburbs, expanding educational opportunities, new technologies, the expanding job market and service industries, and changing opportunities for women in the workforce.
5-5.3 Explain the advancement of the modern Civil Rights Movement; including the desegregation of the armed forces, Brown v. Board of Education, the roles of Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, the Civil Rights acts, and the Voting Rights Act.
5-5.4 Explain the international political alliances that impacted the United States in the latter part of the twentieth century, including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
5-6 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the political, social, economic, and environmental challenges faced by the United States during the period from the collapse of the Soviet Union to the present.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 and the advent of the computer age, the world has become more globally interdependent. To understand the world today and his or her role as an informed participatory citizen, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
5-6.1 Summarize the changes in world politics that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of Soviet domination of eastern Europe.
5-6.2 Identify places in the world where the United States is involved in humanitarian and economic efforts, including the Middle East, the Balkans, Central America, Africa, and Asia.
5-6.3 Explain the impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, including the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the home-front responses to terrorism.
5-6.4 Explain how technological innovations have changed daily life in the United States, including the changes brought about by computers, satellites, and mass communication systems.
5-6.5 Identify examples of cultural exchanges, including those in food, fashion, and entertainment, that illustrate the growing global interdependence between the United States and other countries.
5-6.6 Identify issues related to the use of natural resources by the United States, including recycling, climate change, environmental hazards, and depletion that requires our reliance on foreign resources.