6-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of the cradles of civilization as people moved from a nomadic existence to a settled life.
The first humans were nomads who continually traveled in search of food. As these hunter-gatherers developed better ways of doing things, they began to develop into the world's earliest civilizations. Civilized societies have established written languages, permanent structures, forms of government, dependence on agriculture, and specializations of labor. These societies have also developed customs such as formal religions and traditions in family structure, food, and clothing that have endured. To understand how early civilizations evolved, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-1.1 Explain the characteristics of hunter-gatherer groups and their relationship to the natural environment.
6-1.2 Explain the emergence of agriculture and its effect on early human communities, including the domestication of plants and animals, the impact of irrigation techniques, and subsequent food surpluses.
6-1.3 Compare the river valley civilizations of the Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia), the Nile (Egypt), the Indus (India), and the Huang He (China), including the evolution of written language, government, trade systems, architecture, and forms of social order.
6-2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of life in ancient civilizations and their contributions to the modern world.
The foundations of government, science, technology, and the arts are legacies of ancient civilizations. To understand that the contributions of these ancient civilizations have endured and are evident in our society today, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-2.1 Describe the development of ancient Greek culture (the Hellenistic period), including the concept of citizenship and the early forms of democracy in Athens.
6-2.2 Analyze the role of Alexander the Great (Hellenistic period), Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Aristotle, and others in the creation and spread of Greek governance, literature, philosophy, the arts, math, and science.
6-2.4 Describe the expansion and transition of the Roman government from monarchy to republic to empire, including the roles of Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar (Octavius).
6-2.5 Explain the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire and the impact of the Byzantine Empire, including the Justinian Code and the preservation of ancient Greek and Roman learning, architecture, and government.
6-2.6 Compare the polytheistic belief systems of the Greeks and the Romans with the origins, foundational beliefs, and spread of Christianity.
6-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of changing political, social, and economic cultures in Asia.
Asian cultures were developing in ways both similar to and different from those in other parts of the world. The cultures of China, India, Japan, and the Middle East influenced each other's growth and development as well as that of the rest of the world. To understand the contributions of Asian societies that have endured and are evident in our society today, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-3.1 Summarize the major contributions of the Chinese civilization from the Qing dynasty through the Ming dynasty, including the golden age of art and literature, the invention of gunpowder and woodblock printing, and the rise of trade via the Silk Road.
6-4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the changing political, social, and economic cultures in Africa and the Americas.
African and American cultures were developing independently in ways similar to and different from those in other parts of the world. These cultures also influenced the development of the rest of the world. To understand that the contributions of African and American cultures have endured and are evident in our society today, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-4.1 Compare the major contributions of the African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, including the impact of Islam on the cultures of these kingdoms.
6-4.2 Describe the influence of geography on trade in the African kingdoms, including the salt and gold trades.
6-4.3 Compare the contributions and the decline of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations in Central and South America, including their forms of government and their contributions in mathematics, astronomy, and architecture.
6-4.4 Explain the contributions, features, and rise and fall of the North American ancestors of the numerous Native American tribes, including the Adena, Hopewell, Pueblo, and Mississippian cultures.
6-5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the Middle Ages and the emergence of nation-states in Europe.
Political systems are made up of the people, practices, and institutions that use power to make and enforce decisions. Feudalism during the Middle Ages in Europe was a political and economic system in which control of land was the main source of power. To understand feudalism and its relationship to the development of the European nation-states, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-5.1 Explain feudalism and its relationship to the development of European monarchies and nation-states, including feudal relationships, the daily lives of peasants and serfs, and the economy under the manorial system.
6-5.2 Explain the effects of the Magna Carta on European society, its effect on the feudal system, and its contribution to the development of representative government in England.
6-5.3 Summarize the course of the Crusades and explain their effects on feudalism and their role in spreading Christianity.
6-5.4 Explain the role and influence of the Roman Catholic Church in medieval Europe.
6-5.5 Summarize the origins and impact of the bubonic plague (Black Death) on feudalism.
6-6 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration on Europe and the rest of the world.
The Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration were times of great discovery and learning that affected the way individuals viewed themselves and the world around them. To understand the connections among the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the exploration of the world, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
6-6.1 Summarize the contributions of the Italian Renaissance, including the importance of Florence, the influence of humanism and the accomplishments of the Italians in art, music, literature, and architecture.