1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877.
A identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects;
C explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.
4 The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era.
A analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War;
B explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Bernardo de Gálvez, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Haym Salomon, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington;
C explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; writing the Articles of Confederation; fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783;
E analyze the arguments for and against ratification.
5 The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic and the Age of Jackson.
A describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic such as maintaining national security, building a military, creating a stable economic system, setting up the court system, and defining the authority of the central government;
D identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the roles of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster.
8 The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War.
A explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln, and heroes such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients William Carney and Philip Bazaar;
B explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln; and
C analyze Abraham Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg Address and contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis's inaugural address.
9 The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation.
A evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments;
C analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events in the United States.
11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century.
A analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries;
14 The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States.
A explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation, including minimal government intrusion, taxation, and property rights; and
B describe the characteristics and the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system during the 18th and 19th centuries.
15 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents.
A identify the influence of ideas from historic documents, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Federalist Papers, and selected Anti-Federalist writings, on the U.S. system of government;
21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic.
A identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues;
B describe the importance of free speech and press in a constitutional republic; and
C summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution.
22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic.
A analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as George Washington, John Marshall, and Abraham Lincoln; and
B describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
A identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration;
C analyze the impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.
26 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created.
A describe developments in art, music, and literature that are unique to American culture such as the Hudson River School artists, John James Audubon, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," transcendentalism, and other cultural activities in the history of the United States;
B identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras; and
C analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.
Science, technology, and society.
27 The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.
A explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts;
C analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and marketed, nationally and internationally; and
D explain how technological innovations brought about economic growth such as how the factory system contributed to rapid industrialization and the Transcontinental Railroad led to the opening of the west.
28 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States.
A compare the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations that have influenced daily life in different periods in U.S. history; and
29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology.
A differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;
B analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings.
A use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
B use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.