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Skills available for Texas eighth-grade social studies standards

Standards are in black and IXL social studies skills are in dark green. Hold your mouse over the name of a skill to view a sample question. Click on the name of a skill to practice that skill.

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  • 10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present.

  • 11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century.

    • A analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries;

    • B describe the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the physical environment of the United States; and

    • C describe how different immigrant groups interacted with the environment in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.


  • 12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity.

    • A identify economic differences among different regions of the United States;

    • B explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery;

    • C explain the reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization; and

    • D analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. history.

  • 13 The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.

    • A analyze the War of 1812 as a cause of economic changes in the nation; and

    • B identify the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization.

  • 14 The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States.

    • A explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation, including minimal government intrusion, taxation, and property rights; and

    • B describe the characteristics and the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system during the 18th and 19th centuries.


  • 15 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents.

  • 16 The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society.

    • A summarize the purposes for and process of amending the U.S. Constitution; and

    • B describe the impact of 19th-century amendments, including the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, on life in the United States.

  • 17 The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system.

    • A analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason; and

    • B explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.

  • 18 The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases.

    • A identify the origin of judicial review and analyze examples of congressional and presidential responses;

    • B summarize the issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden; and

    • C evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, on life in the United States.


  • 19 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States.

    • A define and give examples of unalienable rights;

    • B summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights;

    • C explain the importance of personal responsibilities, including accepting responsibility for one's behavior and supporting one's family;

    • D identify examples of responsible citizenship, including obeying rules and laws, staying informed on public issues, voting, and serving on juries;

    • E summarize the criteria and explain the process for becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States; and

    • F explain how the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens reflect our national identity.

  • 20 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process.

    • A explain the role of significant individuals such as Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, John Locke, William Blackstone, and William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America;

    • B evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue; and

    • C analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.

  • 21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic.

    • A identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues;

    • B describe the importance of free speech and press in a constitutional republic; and

    • C summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution.

  • 22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic.

    • A analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as George Washington, John Marshall, and Abraham Lincoln; and

    • B describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.


  • 23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    • A identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration;

    • B explain the relationship between urbanization and conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs;

    • C identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were resolved;

    • D analyze the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity; and

    • E identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

  • 24 The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century.

    • A describe the historical development of the abolitionist movement; and

    • B evaluate the impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance, the women's rights movement, prison reform, abolition, the labor reform movement, and care of the disabled.

  • 25 The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life.

    • A trace the development of religious freedom in the United States;

    • B describe religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements, including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings; and

    • C analyze the impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.

  • 26 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created.

    • A describe developments in art, music, and literature that are unique to American culture such as the Hudson River School artists, John James Audubon, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," transcendentalism, and other cultural activities in the history of the United States;

    • B identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras; and

    • C analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.

Science, technology, and society.

  • 27 The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.

    • A explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts;

    • B analyze the impact of transportation and communication systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United States;

    • C analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and marketed, nationally and internationally; and

    • D explain how technological innovations brought about economic growth such as how the factory system contributed to rapid industrialization and the Transcontinental Railroad led to the opening of the west.

  • 28 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States.

Social studies skills.