1 The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas before European exploration. The student is expected to:
A explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas
B identify and compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;
C describe the cultural regions in which American Indians lived such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern; and
D locate American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo.
2 The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas. The student is expected to:
A summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion;
B identify the accomplishments and explain the impact of significant explorers, including Cabeza de Vaca; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, on the settlement of Texas;
C explain when, where, and why the Spanish established settlements and Catholic missions in Texas as well as important individuals;
D identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas; and
E identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.
3 The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to:
A analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto;
B summarize the significant contributions of individuals such as William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett, Juan N. Seguín, Plácido Benavides, José Francisco Ruiz, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Susanna Dickinson, and Enrique Esparza;
C identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including José Antonio Navarro, Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones;
D describe the successes, problems, and organizations of the Republic of Texas such as the establishment of a constitution, economic struggles, relations with American Indians, and the Texas Rangers; and
E explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States and the impact of the U.S.-Mexican War.
4 The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:
A describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas
B explain the growth, development, and impact of the cattle industry such as contributions made by Charles Goodnight, Richard King, and Lizzie Johnson;
C explain the effects of the railroad industry on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and
D explain the effects on American Indian life brought about by the Red River War, building of U.S. forts and railroads, and loss of buffalo.
5 The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:
A explain the impact of various events on life in Texas such as the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II and notable individuals such as Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, and Bessie Coleman and other local individuals; and
B explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry on industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including Spindletop and important people such as Pattillo Higgins.
6 The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:
A identify, locate, and describe the physical regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains), including their characteristics such as landforms, climate, vegetation, and economic activities; and
B compare the physical regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains).
7 The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:
A explain the geographic factors such as landforms and climate that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in Texas, past and present; and
B identify and explain patterns of settlement such as the location of towns and cities in Texas at different time periods.
8 The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:
A describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams;
B explain reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs, facilitate transportation, and enhance recreational activities; and
C compare the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present.
9 The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas. The student is expected to:
A explain the economic activities various early American Indian groups in Texas used to meet their needs and wants such as farming, trading, and hunting; and
B explain the economic activities early settlers to Texas used to meet their needs and wants
10 The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:
A describe how the free enterprise system works, including supply and demand;
14 The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations of Texas. The student is expected to:
A explain the meaning of various patriotic symbols and landmarks of Texas, including the six flags that flew over Texas, the Alamo, and the San Jacinto Monument;
B sing or recite "Texas, Our Texas";
C recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag; and
D describe the origins and significance of state celebrations such as Texas Independence Day and Juneteenth.
15 The student understands the importance of active individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
A identify important individuals who have participated voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels such as Adina de Zavala and Clara Driscoll;
B explain how individuals can participate voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels through activities such as respectfully holding public officials to their word, writing letters, and participating in historic preservation and service projects;
C explain the duty of the individual in state and local elections such as being informed and voting;
D identify the importance of historical figures and important individuals who modeled active participation in the democratic process such as Sam Houston, Barbara Jordan, Lorenzo de Zavala, Ann Richards, Henry B. González, Wallace Jefferson, and other local individuals; and
E explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in state and local governments.
16 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
A identify leaders in state, local, and national governments, including the governor, local members of the Texas Legislature, the local mayor, U.S. senators, local U.S. representatives, and Texans who have been president of the United States; and
B identify leadership qualities of state and local leaders, past and present.
17 The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas culture. The student is expected to:
A identify customs, celebrations, and traditions of various cultural, regional, and local groups in Texas such as Cinco de Mayo, Oktoberfest, and Fiesta San Antonio; and
B summarize the contributions of artists of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the development of Texas culture such as Lydia Mendoza, Chelo Silva, and Julius Lorenzo Cobb Bledsoe.
Science, technology, and society
18 The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. The student is expected to:
A identify famous inventors and scientists such as Gail Borden, Joseph Glidden, Michael DeBakey, and Millie Hughes-Fulford and their contributions; and
B describe how scientific discoveries and innovations such as in aerospace, agriculture, energy, and technology have benefited individuals, businesses, and society in Texas.
Social studies skills
19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
A differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as technology; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about Texas;
B analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
B interpret geographic data, population distribution, and natural resources into a variety of formats such as graphs and maps.
21 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
A use social studies terminology correctly;
B incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;
C express ideas orally based on research and experiences; and
D create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.
22 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.