1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history.
A identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain why historians divide the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights and Conservatism; and Contemporary Texas;
B apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and
C explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.
2 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues through the Mexican National Era shaped the history of Texas.
A compare the cultures of American Indians in Texas prior to European colonization such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern;
B identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploration of Texas such as Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his writings, the search for gold, and the conflicting territorial claims between France and Spain;
C identify important events and issues related to European colonization of Texas, including the establishment of Catholic missions, towns, and ranches, and individuals such as Fray Damián Massanet, José de Escandón, Antonio Margil de Jesús, and Francisco Hidalgo;
D identify the individuals, issues, and events related to Mexico becoming an independent nation and its impact on Texas, including Texas involvement in the fight for independence, José Gutiérrez de Lara, the Battle of Medina, the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824, the merger of Texas and Coahuila as a state, the State Colonization Law of 1825, and slavery;
E identify the contributions of significant individuals, including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, Erasmo Seguín, Martín De León, and Green DeWitt, during the Mexican settlement of Texas; and
F contrast Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo purposes for and methods of settlement in Texas.
3 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas.
A trace the development of events that led to the Texas Revolution, including the Fredonian Rebellion, the Mier y Terán Report, the Law of April 6, 1830, the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, and the arrest of Stephen F. Austin;
B explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Texas Revolution, including George Childress, Lorenzo de Zavala, James Fannin, Sam Houston, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Juan N. Seguín, and William B. Travis;
C explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of Gonzales, William B. Travis's letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World," the siege of the Alamo and all the heroic defenders who gave their lives there, the Constitutional Convention of 1836, Fannin's surrender at Goliad, and the Battle of San Jacinto; and
D explain how the establishment of the Republic of Texas brought civil, political, and religious freedom to Texas.
4 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood.
A identify individuals, events, and issues during the administrations of Republic of Texas Presidents Houston, Lamar, and Jones, including the Texas Navy, the Texas Rangers, Edwin W. Moore, Jack Coffee Hays, Chief Bowles, William Goyens, Mary Maverick, José Antonio Navarro, the Córdova Rebellion, the Council House Fight, the Santa Fe Expedition, public debt, and the roles of racial and ethnic groups;
B analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas annexation; and
C identify significant individuals and events concerning Texas and the Civil War such as John Bell Hood, John Reagan, Francis Lubbock, Thomas Green, John Magruder and the Battle of Galveston, the Battle of Sabine Pass, and the Battle of Palmito Ranch.
6 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century.
A identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier, the effects of westward expansion on American Indians, the buffalo soldiers, and Quanah Parker;
B identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings and the myths and realities of the cowboy way of life;
C identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the effects of the growth of railroads and the contributions of James Hogg; and
D explain the political, economic, and social impact of the agricultural industry and the development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier.
7 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the 20th and early 21st centuries.
A explain the political, economic, and social impact of the oil industry on the industrialization of Texas;
B define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology;
C describe and compare the impact of the Progressive and other reform movements in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries such as the Populists, women's suffrage, agrarian groups, labor unions, and the evangelical movement of the late 20th century;
D describe and compare the civil rights and equal rights movements of various groups in Texas in the 20th century and identify key leaders in these movements, including James L. Farmer Jr., Hector P. Garcia, Oveta Culp Hobby, Lyndon B. Johnson, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Jane McCallum, and Lulu Belle Madison White;
E analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major events, including World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II, on the history of Texas; and
F analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major events in the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries such as major conflicts, the emergence of a two-party system, political and economic controversies, immigration, and migration.
8 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data.
A create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries; and
B analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.
9 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas.
A locate the Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, and Coastal Plains regions and places of importance in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries such as major cities, rivers, natural and historic landmarks, political and cultural regions, and local points of interest;
B compare places and regions of Texas in terms of physical and human characteristics; and
C analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.
10 The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.
A identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and analyze the positive and negative consequences of the modifications; and
B explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.
11 The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.
A analyze why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled;
B analyze how immigration and migration to Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries have influenced Texas;
C analyze the effects of the changing population distribution and growth in Texas during the 20th and 21st centuries and the additional need for education, health care, and transportation; and
D describe the structure of the population of Texas using demographic concepts such as growth rate and age distribution.
12 The student understands the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society.
A explain economic factors that led to the urbanization of Texas;
B trace the development of major industries that contributed to the urbanization of Texas such as transportation, oil and gas, and manufacturing; and
C explain the changes in the types of jobs and occupations that have resulted from the urbanization of Texas.
13 The student understands the interdependence of the Texas economy with the United States and the world.
A analyze the impact of national and international markets and events on the production of goods and services in Texas such as agriculture, oil and gas, and computer technology;
B analyze the impact of economic concepts within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, government regulation, and world competition on the economy of Texas; and
C analyze the impact of significant industries in Texas such as oil and gas, aerospace, medical, and computer technologies on local, national, and international markets.
14 The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution.
A identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights; and
B compare the principles and concepts of the Texas Constitution to the U.S. Constitution, including the Texas and U.S. Bill of Rights.
15 The student understands the structure and functions of government created by the Texas Constitution.
A describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels;
B identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments such as property tax, sales tax, and fees; and
C describe the structure, funding, and governance of Texas public education, including local property taxes, bond issues, and state and federal funding supported by state and federal taxpayers.
16 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens in a democratic society.
A identify rights of Texas citizens; and
B explain and analyze civic responsibilities of Texas citizens and the importance of civic participation.
17 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society.
A identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present;
B describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and
C express and defend a point of view on an issue of historical or contemporary interest in Texas.
18 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society.
A identify the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of Texas, past and present, including Texans who have been president of the United States; and
B identify the contributions of Texas leaders, including Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross, John Nance Garner ("Cactus Jack"), James A. Baker III, Henry B. González, Kay Bailey Hutchison, Barbara Jordan, Raymond L. Telles, Sam Rayburn, and Raul A. Gonzalez Jr.
19 The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas.
A explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities, celebrations, and performances;
B describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture;
C identify examples of Spanish influence and the influence of other cultures on Texas such as place names, vocabulary, religion, architecture, food, and the arts; and
D identify contributions to the arts by Texans such as Roy Bedichek, Diane Gonzales Bertrand, J. Frank Dobie, Scott Joplin, Elisabet Ney, Amado Peña Jr., Walter Prescott Webb, and Horton Foote.
Science, technology, and society.
20 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas.
A compare types and uses of technology, past and present;
B identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley, Benjy Brooks, Michael Dell, and Howard Hughes Sr.;
C analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace industries;
D evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land; and
E analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world.
Social studies skills.
21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology.
A differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas;
B analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings.
A use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
B use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.