L.1 Within the context of authentic English writing and speaking
L.1.1.a Use parallel structure.
L.1.1.b Use various types of phrases (i.e., noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (i.e., independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
L.1.1.c Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice (i.e., active vs. passive).
L.1.2.d Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
L.1.2.e Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
L.1.2.f Resolve issues of complex of contested usage, consulting reliable references as needed.
L.1.3 Demonstrate proficiency in:
L.1.3.g Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement.
L.1.3.h Recognize variations from Standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
L.1.3.i Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
L.1.3.j Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
L.1.3.k Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (i.e., subjective, objective, possessive).
L.1.3.l Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
L.1.3.m Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
L.1.4 Continually use and maintain proficiency:
L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
L.2.1.a Use punctuation (i.e., brackets and ellipses) as appropriate for advanced types and purposes of writing.
L.2.1.b Observe hyphenation conventions.
L.2.2.c Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed and/or using spelling patterns and generalizations. (e.g., word families, position-based spelling, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts)
L.2.3 Display proficiency in:
L.2.3.d Use punctuation (i.e., comma, dash, parentheses) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
L.2.3.e Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
L.2.3.f Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
L.2.4 Continually use and maintain proficiency:
Knowledge of Language
L.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
L.3.a Maintain consistency in style and tone.
L.3.b Vary syntax for effect.
L.3.c Apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
L.3.d Use verbs in the active and passive voice to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
L.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
L.4.a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
L.4.c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, it's part of speech, or its etymology.
L.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the grade-appropriate level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.