L.1 Within the context of authentic English writing and speaking
L.1.1.a Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
L.1.1.b Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
L.1.2.c Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement.
L.1.2.d Recognize variations from Standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
L.1.2.e Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
L.1.2.f Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
L.1.2.g Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
L.1.2.h Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
L.1.2.i Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
L.1.2.j Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting reliable references as needed.
L.1.3 Demonstrate proficiency in:
L.1.3.k Rearrange complete simple and compound sentences of a variety of lengths.
L.1.3.l Use and describe verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
L.1.3.m Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
L.1.3.n Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
L.1.3.o Explain the function of an adverb.
L.1.3.p Explain the function of coordinating conjunction.
L.1.3.q Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
L.2.1.a Use punctuation (comma, parentheses, dash) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
L.2.1.b Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
L.2.1.c Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
L.2.2.d Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed and/or using spelling patterns and generalizations. (e.g., word families, position-based spelling, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts)
L.2.3 Display proficiency in:
L.2.3.e Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old [,] green shirt).
Knowledge of Language
L.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
L.4.c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
L.6 Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.