W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning, relevant and sufficient evidence and appropriate rhetorical strategies for a variety of purposes, audiences, and contexts.
W.1.a Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; engage and orient the reader.
W.1.c Develop claim(s) and counterclaims, pointing out the strengths and limitations of both by supplying relevant and credible evidence; use appropriate rhetorical strategies for the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
W.1.d Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content for a variety of purposes, audiences, and contexts.
W.2.a Introduce a topic and establish a clear focus, purpose, and thesis statement to engage and orient the reader.
W.2.b Organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
W.2.c Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate for purpose and audience.
W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences for a variety of purposes, audiences, and contexts.
W.3.a Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
W.3.b Use a variety of techniques to sequence events in a smooth progression so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, resolution).
W.3.c Use narrative techniques (e.g., dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and complex plots) to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
W.3.d Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, including new arguments or information. Use technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and effectively.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer complex questions (including self-generated questions) or solve problems.
W.7.a Develop a complex research question or set of questions.
W.7.b Narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate.