9 The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historical and contemporary figures and organizations. The student is expected to:
A identify characteristics of good citizenship, including truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word, and voting;
B identify figures such as Helen Keller, Clara Barton, and Ruby Bridges who exemplify good citizenship;
12 The student understands the importance of writers and artists to the cultural heritage of communities. The student is expected to identify how various writers and artists such as Kadir Nelson, Tomie dePaola, Carmen Lomas Garza, and Laura Ingalls Wilder and their stories, poems, statues, and paintings contribute to the cultural heritage of communities.
Science, technology, and society
13 The student understands how individuals have created or invented new technology and affected life in various communities, past and present. The student is expected to:
A identify individuals who have discovered scientific breakthroughs or created or invented new technology such as Jonas Salk, Cyrus McCormick, Bill Gates, Louis Pasteur, and others; and
14 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
A gather information, including historical and current events and geographic data, about the community using a variety of resources;
B interpret oral, visual, and print material by sequencing, categorizing, identifying the main idea, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying cause and effect, comparing, and contrasting; and
C apply the terms year, decade, and century to describe historical times;
D express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences, and;
E create written and visual material such as stories, pictures, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas.
16 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.