B describe the accomplishments of significant individuals who settled for religious freedom and economic gain during the colonial period, including William Bradford, Anne Hutchinson, William Penn, John Smith, and Roger Williams.
2 The student understands how conflict between the American colonies and Great Britain led to American independence and the formation of the United States. The student is expected to:
A analyze the causes and effects of events prior to and during the American Revolution, including the taxation resulting from the French and Indian War and the colonist response to taxation such as the Boston Tea Party;
B identify the Founding Fathers and Patriot heroes, including John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, the Sons of Liberty, and George Washington, and their motivations and contributions during the revolutionary period; and
3 The student understands the significant individuals who contributed to the creation of the U.S. Constitution and the government it established. The student is expected to identify the contributions of Founding Fathers James Madison and George Mason who helped create the U.S. Constitution.
4 The student understands political, economic, and social changes that occurred in the United States during the 19th century. The student is expected to:
A describe the causes and effects of the War of 1812 such as impressment of sailors, territorial conflicts with Great Britain, and the increase in U.S. manufacturing;
F identify the challenges, opportunities, and contributions of people from various American Indian and immigrant groups such as the settlement of the frontier and building of the Transcontinental Railroad.
5 The student understands important issues, events, and individuals in the United States during the 20th and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
A explain the significance of issues and events of the 20th century such as industrialization, urbanization, the Great Depression, the world wars, the civil rights movement, and military actions;
B analyze various issues and events of the 21st century such as the War on Terror and the 2008 presidential election; and
C identify the accomplishments and contributions of individuals and groups such as Susan B. Anthony, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Cesar Chavez, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ronald Reagan, the Tuskegee Airmen, and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team in the areas of civil rights, women's rights, military actions, and politics.
B identify leadership qualities of national leaders, past and present.
19 The student understands the fundamental rights of American citizens guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. The student is expected to describe the fundamental rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, including freedom of religion, speech, and press; the right to assemble and petition the government; the right to keep and bear arms; the right to trial by jury; and the right to an attorney.
20 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
A identify significant examples of art, music, and literature from various periods in U.S. history such as the painting American Progress, "Yankee Doodle," and "Paul Revere's Ride"; and
22 The student understands the impact of science and technology on society in the United States. The student is expected to:
A identify the accomplishments of notable individuals in the fields of science and technology such as Benjamin Franklin, Eli Whitney, John Deere, Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, George Washington Carver, the Wright Brothers, and Neil Armstrong;
B identify how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the rapid growth of technology industries have advanced the economic development of the United States, including the transcontinental railroad and the space program; and
23 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
A differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as technology; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;
B analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
B interpret geographic data, population distribution, and natural resources into a variety of formats such as graphs and maps.
25 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
A use social studies terminology correctly;
B incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;
C express ideas orally based on research and experiences; and
D create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.
26 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.