1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
A identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects; and
B explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.
4 The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary and Constitutional eras. The student is expected to:
A analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War;
B explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington;
C explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; fighting the battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783; and
D identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the role of John Quincy Adams.
8 The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to:
A explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln, and heroes such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients William Carney and Philip Bazaar;
C explain significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln; and
D analyze Abraham Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg Address and contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis's inaugural address.
23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
A identify racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration;
C analyze the impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.
26 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
A identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras such as the Hudson River School artists, the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," and transcendental literature; and
B analyze the relationship between the arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.
Science, technology, and society
27 The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
A explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, the telegraph, and interchangeable parts;
29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
A differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;
B analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.